Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
- Collagen is the most abundant protein in humans. It has a characteristic triple-helix structure and is heavily posttranslationally modified. The complex biosynthesis of collagen involves processing by many enzymes and chaperones in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Lysyl hydroxylase 1 (LH1) is required to hydroxylate lysine for cross-linking and carbohydrate attachment within collagen triple helical sequences. Additionally, a recent study of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3 (P3H3) demonstrated that this enzyme may be critical for LH1 activity; however, the details surrounding its involvement remain unclear.
- The build-up of diversified and tissue-specific assemblies of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins depends on secreted and cell surface–located molecular arrays that coordinate ECM proteins into discrete designs. The family of small leucine-rich proteins (SLRPs) associates with and dictates the structure of fibrillar collagens, which form the backbone of most ECM types. However, whether SLRPs form complexes with proteins other than collagens is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), a well-established endoplasmic reticulum–resident collagen chaperone, also binds the SLRPs decorin, lumican, and fibromodulin with affinities comparable with that in the Hsp47–type I collagen interaction.
- Type IV collagen is a major component of the basement membrane and interacts with numerous other basement membrane proteins. Many of these interactions are poorly characterized. Type IV collagen is abundantly post-translationally modified with 3-hydroxyproline (3-Hyp), but 3-Hyp’s biochemical role in type IV collagen’s interactions with other proteins is not well established. In this work, we present binding data consistent with a major role of 3-Hyp in interactions of collagen IV with glycoprotein VI and nidogens 1 and 2.
- Collagen is the most abundant protein in the extracellular matrix in humans and is critical to the integrity and function of many musculoskeletal tissues. A molecular ensemble comprising more than 20 molecules is involved in collagen biosynthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Two proteins, heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47/SERPINH1) and 65-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP65/FKBP10), have been shown to play important roles in this ensemble. In humans, autosomal recessive mutations in both genes cause similar osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes.
- Extracellular matrix proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the triple-helical protein collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the human body. Many enzymes, molecular chaperones, and post-translational modifiers facilitate collagen biosynthesis. Collagen contains a large number of proline residues, so the cis/trans isomerization of proline peptide bonds is the rate-limiting step during triple-helix formation. Accordingly, the rER-resident peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play an important role in the zipper-like triple-helix formation in collagen.