Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
- The build-up of diversified and tissue-specific assemblies of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins depends on secreted and cell surface–located molecular arrays that coordinate ECM proteins into discrete designs. The family of small leucine-rich proteins (SLRPs) associates with and dictates the structure of fibrillar collagens, which form the backbone of most ECM types. However, whether SLRPs form complexes with proteins other than collagens is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47), a well-established endoplasmic reticulum–resident collagen chaperone, also binds the SLRPs decorin, lumican, and fibromodulin with affinities comparable with that in the Hsp47–type I collagen interaction.
- Collagen is the most abundant protein in the extracellular matrix in humans and is critical to the integrity and function of many musculoskeletal tissues. A molecular ensemble comprising more than 20 molecules is involved in collagen biosynthesis in the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Two proteins, heat shock protein 47 (Hsp47/SERPINH1) and 65-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP65/FKBP10), have been shown to play important roles in this ensemble. In humans, autosomal recessive mutations in both genes cause similar osteogenesis imperfecta phenotypes.
- Extracellular matrix proteins are biosynthesized in the rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER), and the triple-helical protein collagen is the most abundant extracellular matrix component in the human body. Many enzymes, molecular chaperones, and post-translational modifiers facilitate collagen biosynthesis. Collagen contains a large number of proline residues, so the cis/trans isomerization of proline peptide bonds is the rate-limiting step during triple-helix formation. Accordingly, the rER-resident peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) play an important role in the zipper-like triple-helix formation in collagen.