Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
A complex between phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα and integrin α3β1 is required for N-glycan sialylation in cancer cellsAberrant N-glycan sialylation of glycoproteins is closely associated with malignant phenotypes of cancer cells and metastatic potential, which includes cell adhesion, migration, and growth. Recently, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4KIIα), which is localized to the trans-Golgi network, was identified as a regulator of Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) and of vesicle transport in the Golgi apparatus. GOLPH3 is a target of PI4KIIα and helps anchor sialyltransferases and thereby regulates sialylation of cell surface receptors.
O-GlcNAcylation regulates integrin-mediated cell adhesion and migration via formation of focal adhesion complexesO-GlcNAcylation is a post-translational modification of a protein serine or threonine residue catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) in the nucleus and cytoplasm. O-GlcNAcylation plays important roles in the cellular signaling that affect the different biological functions of cells, depending upon cell type. However, whether or not O-GlcNAcylation regulates cell adhesion and migration remains unclear. Here, we used the doxycycline-inducible short hairpin RNA (shRNA) system to establish an OGT knockdown (KD) HeLa cell line and found that O-GlcNAcylation is a key regulator for cell adhesion, migration, and focal adhesion (FA) complex formation.
Expression of N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase III Suppresses α2,3-Sialylation, and Its Distinctive Functions in Cell Migration Are Attributed to α2,6-Sialylation LevelsN-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase III (GnT-III), which catalyzes the addition of the bisecting GlcNAc branch on N-glycans, is usually described as a metastasis suppressor. Overexpression of GnT-III inhibited migration in multiple types of tumor cells. However, these results seem controversial to the clinical observations for the increased expression of GnT-III in human hepatomas, glioma, and ovarian cancers. Here, we present evidence that these inconsistencies are mainly attributed to the different expression pattern of cell sialylation.
Integrin α5 Suppresses the Phosphorylation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Its Cellular Signaling of Cell Proliferation via N-GlycosylationBackground: The functions of integrin α5 on cell proliferation and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear.Results: Loss of N-glycosylation on α5 increased the phosphorylation and internalization of EGFR and abolished its inhibitory effects on cell proliferation.Conclusion: Integrin α5 regulates EGFR-mediated signaling through N-glycosylation.Significance: N-Glycosylation plays important roles in the cross-talk between integrins and growth factor receptors.
Loss of α1,6-Fucosyltransferase Decreases Hippocampal Long Term Potentiation: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORE FUCOSYLATION IN THE REGULATION OF AMPA RECEPTOR HETEROMERIZATION AND CELLULAR SIGNALINGCore fucosylation is catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8), which transfers a fucose residue to the innermost GlcNAc residue via α1,6-linkage on N-glycans in mammals. We previously reported that Fut8-knock-out (Fut8−/−) mice showed a schizophrenia-like phenotype and a decrease in working memory. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism, we analyzed early form long term potentiation (E-LTP), which is closely related to learning and memory in the hippocampus. The scale of E-LTP induced by high frequency stimulation was significantly decreased in Fut8−/− mice.