Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
Angiostatic cues from the matrix: Endothelial cell autophagy meets hyaluronan biologyThe extracellular matrix encompasses a reservoir of bioactive macromolecules that modulates a cornucopia of biological functions. A prominent body of work posits matrix constituents as master regulators of autophagy and angiogenesis and provides molecular insight into how these two processes are coordinated. Here, we review current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying hyaluronan and HAS2 regulation and the role of soluble proteoglycan in affecting autophagy and angiogenesis. Specifically, we assess the role of proteoglycan-evoked autophagy in regulating angiogenesis via the HAS2-hyaluronan axis and ATG9A, a novel HAS2 binding partner.
Endorepellin evokes an angiostatic stress signaling cascade in endothelial cellsEndorepellin, the C-terminal fragment of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan, influences various signaling pathways in endothelial cells by binding to VEGFR2. In this study, we discovered that soluble endorepellin activates the canonical stress signaling pathway consisting of PERK, eIF2α, ATF4, and GADD45α. Specifically, endorepellin evoked transient activation of VEGFR2, which, in turn, phosphorylated PERK at Thr980. Subsequently, PERK phosphorylated eIF2α at Ser51, upregulating its downstream effector proteins ATF4 and GADD45α.
Catabolic degradation of endothelial VEGFA via autophagyExtracellular matrix-evoked angiostasis and autophagy within the tumor microenvironment represent two critical, but unconnected, functions of the small leucine-rich proteoglycan, decorin. Acting as a partial agonist of vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2), soluble decorin signals via the energy sensing protein, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), in the autophagic degradation of intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). Here, we discovered that soluble decorin evokes intracellular catabolism of endothelial VEGFA that is mechanistically independent of mTOR, but requires an autophagic regulator, paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3).
Metabolic reprogramming of murine cardiomyocytes during autophagy requires the extracellular nutrient sensor decorinThe extracellular matrix is a master regulator of tissue homeostasis in health and disease. Here we examined how the small, leucine-rich, extracellular matrix proteoglycan decorin regulates cardiomyocyte metabolism during fasting in vivo. First, we validated in Dcn−/− mice that decorin plays an essential role in autophagy induced by fasting. High-throughput metabolomics analyses of cardiac tissue in Dcn−/− mice subjected to fasting revealed striking differences in the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway resulting in aberrant cardiac O-β-N-acetylglycosylation as compared with WT mice.
Endorepellin remodels the endothelial transcriptome toward a pro-autophagic and pro-mitophagic gene signatureRegulation of autophagy by proteolytically cleaved fragments of heparan sulfate proteoglycans is a novel and current research focus in tumor biology. Endorepellin is the C-terminal angiostatic fragment of the heparan sulfate proteoglycan perlecan and induces autophagy in endothelial cells. To further investigate this property, we used NanoString, a digital PCR platform for measuring pre-defined transcripts in biological samples to analyze a custom subset of 95 autophagy-related genes in human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with ultrapure human recombinant endorepellin.
Decorin-evoked paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3) is an upstream regulator of the transcription factor EB (TFEB) in endothelial cell autophagyMacroautophagy is a fundamental and evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eradicates damaged and aging macromolecules and organelles in eukaryotic cells. Decorin, an archetypical small leucine-rich proteoglycan, initiates a protracted autophagic program downstream of VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) signaling that requires paternally expressed gene 3 (PEG3). We have discovered that PEG3 is an upstream transcriptional regulator of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master transcription factor of lysosomal biogenesis, for decorin-evoked endothelial cell autophagy.
Decorin-inducible Peg3 Evokes Beclin 1-mediated Autophagy and Thrombospondin 1-mediated AngiostasisWe previously discovered that systemic delivery of decorin for treatment of breast carcinoma xenografts induces paternally expressed gene 3 (Peg3), an imprinted gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor postulated to function as a tumor suppressor. Here we found that de novo expression of Peg3 increased Beclin 1 promoter activity and protein expression. This process required the full-length Peg3 as truncated mutants lacking either the N-terminal SCAN domain or the zinc fingers failed to translocate to the nucleus and promote Beclin 1 transcription.
Endorepellin-evoked Autophagy Contributes to AngiostasisEndorepellin, the C-terminal domain of perlecan, is an angiostatic molecule that acts as a potent inducer of autophagy via its interaction with VEGFR2. In this study, we examined the effect of endorepellin on endothelial cells using atomic force microscopy. Soluble endorepellin caused morphological and biophysical changes such as an increase in cell surface roughness and cell height. Surprisingly, these changes were not accompanied by alterations in the endothelial cell elastic modulus. We discovered that endorepellin-induced autophagic flux led to co-localization of mammalian target of rapamycin with LC3-positive autophagosomes.