Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
- The extracellular matrix encompasses a reservoir of bioactive macromolecules that modulates a cornucopia of biological functions. A prominent body of work posits matrix constituents as master regulators of autophagy and angiogenesis and provides molecular insight into how these two processes are coordinated. Here, we review current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying hyaluronan and HAS2 regulation and the role of soluble proteoglycan in affecting autophagy and angiogenesis. Specifically, we assess the role of proteoglycan-evoked autophagy in regulating angiogenesis via the HAS2-hyaluronan axis and ATG9A, a novel HAS2 binding partner.
- Endorepellin, the C-terminal domain of perlecan, is an angiostatic molecule that acts as a potent inducer of autophagy via its interaction with VEGFR2. In this study, we examined the effect of endorepellin on endothelial cells using atomic force microscopy. Soluble endorepellin caused morphological and biophysical changes such as an increase in cell surface roughness and cell height. Surprisingly, these changes were not accompanied by alterations in the endothelial cell elastic modulus. We discovered that endorepellin-induced autophagic flux led to co-localization of mammalian target of rapamycin with LC3-positive autophagosomes.