Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
Defective mucin-type glycosylation on α-dystroglycan in COG-deficient cells increases its susceptibility to bacterial proteasesDeficiency in subunits of the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex results in pleiotropic defects in glycosylation and causes congenital disorders in humans. Insight regarding the functional consequences of this defective glycosylation and the identity of specific glycoproteins affected is lacking. A chemical glycobiology strategy was adopted to identify the surface glycoproteins most sensitive to altered glycosylation in COG-deficient Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Following metabolic labeling, an unexpected increase in GalNAz incorporation into several glycoproteins, including α-dystroglycan (α-DG), was noted in cog1-deficient ldlB cells.
Altered Met receptor phosphorylation and LRP1-mediated uptake in cells lacking carbohydrate-dependent lysosomal targetingAcid hydrolases utilize a carbohydrate-dependent mechanism for lysosomal targeting. These hydrolases acquire a mannose 6-phosphate tag by the action of the GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase enzyme, allowing them to bind receptors and traffic to endosomes. Loss of GlcNAc-1-phosphotransferase results in hydrolase hypersecretion and profound lysosomal storage. Little, however, is known about how these cellular phenotypes affect the trafficking, activity, and localization of surface glycoproteins. To address this question, we profiled the abundance of surface glycoproteins in WT and CRISPR-mediated GNPTAB−/− HeLa cells and identified changes in numerous glycoproteins, including the uptake receptor LRP1 and multiple receptor tyrosine kinases.
Selective Exo-Enzymatic Labeling Detects Increased Cell Surface Sialoglycoprotein Expression upon Megakaryocytic DifferentiationSelective exo-enzymatic labeling (or SEEL) uses recombinant glycosyltransferases and nucleotide-sugar analogues to allow efficient labeling of cell surface glycans. SEEL can circumvent many of the possible issues associated with metabolic labeling, including low incorporation of sugar precursors, and allows for sugars to be added selectively to different types of glycans by virtue of the inherent specificity of the glycosyltransferases. Here we compare the labeling of sialoglycoproteins in undifferentiated and differentiated human erythroleukemia cells (HEL) using SEEL using the sialyltransferases ST6Gal1 and ST3Gal1, which label N- and O-glycans, respectively.