Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
- The GalNAc-type O-glycoproteome is orchestrated by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc-transferase isoenzymes (GalNAc-Ts) with partially overlapping contributions to the O-glycoproteome besides distinct nonredundant functions. Increasing evidence indicates that individual GalNAc-Ts co-regulate and fine-tune specific protein functions in health and disease, and deficiencies in individual GALNT genes underlie congenital diseases with distinct phenotypes. Studies of GalNAc-T specificities have mainly been performed with in vitro enzyme assays using short peptide substrates, but recently quantitative differential O-glycoproteomics of isogenic cells with and without GALNT genes has enabled a more unbiased exploration of the nonredundant contributions of individual GalNAc-Ts.
- The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and related receptors are important for the transport of diverse biomolecules across cell membranes and barriers. Their functions are especially relevant for cholesterol homeostasis and diseases, including neurodegenerative and kidney disorders. Members of the LDLR-related protein family share LDLR class A (LA) repeats providing binding properties for lipoproteins and other biomolecules. We previously demonstrated that short linker regions between these LA repeats contain conserved O-glycan sites.
- Aberrant expression of O-glycans is a hallmark of epithelial cancers. Mucin-type O-glycosylation is initiated by a large family of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts) that target different proteins and are differentially expressed in cells and organs. Here, we investigated the expression patterns of all of the GalNAc-Ts in colon cancer by analyzing transcriptomic data. We found that GalNAc-T6 was highly up-regulated in colon adenocarcinomas but absent in normal-appearing adjacent colon tissue.