Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
Tandem sialoglycan-binding modules in a Streptococcus sanguinis serine-rich repeat adhesin create target dependent avidity effectsSialic acid–binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglec)–like domains of streptococcal serine-rich repeat (SRR) adhesins recognize sialylated glycans on human salivary, platelet, and plasma glycoproteins via a YTRY sequence motif. The SRR adhesin from Streptococcus sanguinis strain SK1 has tandem sialoglycan-binding domains and has previously been shown to bind sialoglycans with high affinity. However, both domains contain substitutions within the canonical YTRY motif, making it unclear how they interact with host receptors.
Carbon source regulates polysaccharide capsule biosynthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniaeThe exopolysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important virulence factor, but the mechanisms that regulate capsule thickness are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effects of various exogenously supplied carbohydrates on capsule production and gene expression in several pneumococcal serotypes. Microscopy analyses indicated a near absence of the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) when S. pneumoniae was grown on fructose. Moreover, serotype 7F pneumococci produced much less CPS than strains of other serotypes (6B, 6C, 9V, 15, and 23F) when grown on glucose or sucrose.
Molecular analysis of an enigmatic Streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factor: The raffinose-family oligosaccharide utilization systemStreptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic respiratory pathogen that can spread to other body sites, including the ears, brain, and blood. The ability of this bacterium to break down, import, and metabolize a wide range of glycans is key to its virulence. Intriguingly, S. pneumoniae can utilize several plant oligosaccharides for growth in vitro, including raffinose-family oligosaccharides (RFOs, which are α-(1→6)-galactosyl extensions of sucrose). An RFO utilization locus has been identified in the pneumococcal genome; however, none of the proteins encoded by this locus have been biochemically characterized.
Two complementary α-fucosidases from Streptococcus pneumoniae promote complete degradation of host-derived carbohydrate antigensAn important aspect of the interaction between the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae and its human host is its ability to harvest host glycans. The pneumococcus can degrade a variety of complex glycans, including N- and O-linked glycans, glycosaminoglycans, and carbohydrate antigens, an ability that is tightly linked to the virulence of S. pneumoniae. Although S. pneumoniae is known to use a sophisticated enzyme machinery to attack the human glycome, how it copes with fucosylated glycans, which are primarily histo-blood group antigens, is largely unknown.
Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B StreptococcusStreptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide the development of the immune system of the infant and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce the risk of infection.
Explaining the Serological Characteristics of Streptococcus suis Serotypes 1 and 1/2 from Their Capsular Polysaccharide Structure and BiosynthesisThe capsular polysaccharide (CPS) is a major virulence factor in many encapsulated pathogens, as it is the case for Streptococcus suis, an important swine pathogen and emerging zoonotic agent. Moreover, the CPS is the antigen at the origin of S. suis classification into serotypes. Hence, analyses of the CPS structure are an essential step to dissect its role in virulence and the serological relations between important serotypes. Here, the CPSs of serotypes 1 and 1/2 were purified and characterized for the first time.
A Second β-Hexosaminidase Encoded in the Streptococcus pneumoniae Genome Provides an Expanded Biochemical Ability to Degrade Host GlycansBackground: The genome of Streptococcus pneumoniae encodes a second uncharacterized family 20 glycoside hydrolase.Results: GH20C displays activity on both terminal β-linked N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine.Conclusion: GH20C is an enzyme able to cleave a wide variety of N-acetylhexosamine-terminating sugars.Significance: S. pneumoniae has the biochemical ability to act on a wide variety of sugars that it would encounter in the human body.