Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
ppGalNAc-T4-catalyzed O-Glycosylation of TGF-β type Ⅱ receptor regulates breast cancer cells metastasis potentialGalNAc-type O-glycosylation, initially catalyzed by polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc-Ts), is one of the most abundant and complex posttranslational modifications of proteins. Emerging evidence has proven that aberrant ppGalNAc-Ts are involved in malignant tumor transformation. However, the exact molecular functions of ppGalNAc-Ts are still unclear. Here, the role of one isoform, ppGalNAc-T4, in breast cancer cell lines was investigated. The expression of ppGalNAc-T4 was found to be negatively associated with migration of breast cancer cells.
A complex between phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα and integrin α3β1 is required for N-glycan sialylation in cancer cellsAberrant N-glycan sialylation of glycoproteins is closely associated with malignant phenotypes of cancer cells and metastatic potential, which includes cell adhesion, migration, and growth. Recently, phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase IIα (PI4KIIα), which is localized to the trans-Golgi network, was identified as a regulator of Golgi phosphoprotein 3 (GOLPH3) and of vesicle transport in the Golgi apparatus. GOLPH3 is a target of PI4KIIα and helps anchor sialyltransferases and thereby regulates sialylation of cell surface receptors.
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition Induces Aberrant Glycosylation through Hexosamine Biosynthetic Pathway ActivationDeregulated cellular metabolism is a hallmark of tumors. Cancer cells increase glucose and glutamine flux to provide energy needs and macromolecular synthesis demands. Several studies have been focused on the importance of glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway. However, a neglected but very important branch of glucose metabolism is the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). The HBP is a branch of the glucose metabolic pathway that consumes ∼2–5% of the total glucose, generating UDP-GlcNAc as the end product.