Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
The stem region of α1,6-fucosyltransferase FUT8 is required for multimer formation but not catalytic activityAlpha-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) synthesizes core fucose in N-glycans, which plays critical roles in various physiological processes. FUT8, as with many other glycosyltransferases, is a type-II membrane protein, and its large C-terminal catalytic domain is linked to the FUT8 stem region, which comprises two α-helices. Although the stem regions of several glycosyltransferases are involved in the regulation of Golgi localization, the functions of the FUT8 stem region have not been clarified as yet.
Interleukin-22 regulates B3GNT7 expression to induce fucosylation of glycoproteins in intestinal epithelial cellsInterleukin (IL)-22 is a cytokine that plays a critical role in intestinal epithelial homeostasis. Its downstream functions are mediated through interaction with the heterodimeric IL-22 receptor and subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3). IL-22 signaling can induce transcription of genes necessary for intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, tissue regeneration, tight junction fortification, and antimicrobial production. Recent studies have also implicated IL-22 signaling in the regulation of intestinal epithelial fucosylation in mice.
The nucleocytosolic O-fucosyltransferase SPINDLY affects protein expression and virulence in Toxoplasma gondiiOnce considered unusual, nucleocytoplasmic glycosylation is now recognized as a conserved feature of eukaryotes. While in animals, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) modifies thousands of intracellular proteins, the human pathogen Toxoplasma gondii transfers a different sugar, fucose, to proteins involved in transcription, mRNA processing, and signaling. Knockout experiments showed that TgSPY, an ortholog of plant SPINDLY and paralog of host OGT, is required for nuclear O-fucosylation. Here we verify that TgSPY is the nucleocytoplasmic O-fucosyltransferase (OFT) by 1) complementation with TgSPY-MYC3, 2) its functional dependence on amino acids critical for OGT activity, and 3) its ability to O-fucosylate itself and a model substrate and to specifically hydrolyze GDP-Fuc.
Histo-blood group antigens of glycosphingolipids predict susceptibility of human intestinal enteroids to norovirus infectionThe molecular mechanisms behind infection and propagation of human restricted pathogens such as human norovirus (HuNoV) have defied interrogation because they were previously unculturable. However, human intestinal enteroids (HIEs) have emerged to offer unique ex vivo models for targeted studies of intestinal biology, including inflammatory and infectious diseases. Carbohydrate-dependent histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) are known to be critical for clinical infection. To explore whether HBGAs of glycosphingolipids contribute to HuNoV infection, we obtained HIE cultures established from stem cells isolated from jejunal biopsies of six individuals with different ABO, Lewis, and secretor genotypes.
The SH3 domain in the fucosyltransferase FUT8 controls FUT8 activity and localization and is essential for core fucosylationCore fucose is an N-glycan structure synthesized by α1,6-fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) localized to the Golgi apparatus and critically regulates the functions of various glycoproteins. However, how FUT8 activity is regulated in cells remains largely unclear. At the luminal side and uncommon for Golgi proteins, FUT8 has an Src homology 3 (SH3) domain, which is usually found in cytosolic signal transduction molecules and generally mediates protein-protein interactions in the cytosol. However, the SH3 domain has not been identified in other glycosyltransferases, suggesting that FUT8's functions are selectively regulated by this domain.
Structural basis of substrate recognition and catalysis by fucosyltransferase 8Fucosylation of the innermost GlcNAc of N-glycans by fucosyltransferase 8 (FUT8) is an important step in the maturation of complex and hybrid N-glycans. This simple modification can dramatically affect the activities and half-lives of glycoproteins, effects that are relevant to understanding the invasiveness of some cancers, development of mAb therapeutics, and the etiology of a congenital glycosylation disorder. The acceptor substrate preferences of FUT8 are well-characterized and provide a framework for understanding N-glycan maturation in the Golgi; however, the structural basis of these substrate preferences and the mechanism through which catalysis is achieved remain unknown.
Glycoengineering of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cells to enforce E-selectin bindingTissue colonization (homing) by blood-borne cells critically hinges on the ability of the cells to adhere to vascular endothelium with sufficient strength to overcome prevailing hemodynamic shear stress. These adhesive interactions are most effectively engendered via binding of the endothelial lectin E-selectin (CD62E) to its cognate ligand, sialyl Lewis-X (sLeX), displayed on circulating cells. Although chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy holds promise for treatment of various hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, there is essentially no information regarding the efficiency of CAR T-cell homing.
O-Fucosylation of thrombospondin-like repeats is required for processing of microneme protein 2 and for efficient host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoitesToxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that causes disseminated infections that can produce neurological damage in fetuses and immunocompromised individuals. Microneme protein 2 (MIC2), a member of the thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) family, is a secreted protein important for T. gondii motility, host cell attachment, invasion, and egress. MIC2 contains six thrombospondin type I repeats (TSRs) that are modified by C-mannose and O-fucose in Plasmodium spp. and mammals. Here, using MS analysis, we found that the four TSRs in T.
Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2–mediated O-glycosylation of the adhesin MIC2 is dispensable for Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite infectionToxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasite that causes congenital birth defects, disease in immunocompromised individuals, and blindness. Protein glycosylation plays an important role in the infectivity and evasion of immune responses of many eukaryotic parasites and is also of great relevance to vaccine design. Here we demonstrate that micronemal protein 2 (MIC2), a motility-associated adhesin of T. gondii, has highly glycosylated thrombospondin repeat (TSR) domains.
Distinct human α(1,3)-fucosyltransferases drive Lewis-X/sialyl Lewis-X assembly in human cellsIn humans, six α(1,3)-fucosyltransferases (α(1,3)-FTs: FT3/FT4/FT5/FT6/FT7/FT9) reportedly fucosylate terminal lactosaminyl glycans yielding Lewis-X (LeX; CD15) and/or sialyl Lewis-X (sLeX; CD15s), structures that play key functions in cell migration, development, and immunity. Prior studies analyzing α(1,3)-FT specificities utilized either purified and/or recombinant enzymes to modify synthetic substrates under nonphysiological reaction conditions or molecular biology approaches wherein α(1,3)-FTs were expressed in mammalian cell lines, notably excluding investigations using primary human cells.
Revisiting the substrate specificity of mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase reveals that it catalyzes core fucosylation of N-glycans lacking α1,3-arm GlcNAcThe mammalian α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) catalyzes the core fucosylation of N-glycans in the biosynthesis of glycoproteins. Previously, intensive in vitro studies with crude extract or purified enzyme concluded that the attachment of a GlcNAc on the α1,3 mannose arm of N-glycan is essential for FUT8-catalyzed core fucosylation. In contrast, we have recently shown that expression of erythropoietin in a GnTI knock-out, FUT8-overexpressing cell line results in the production of fully core-fucosylated glycoforms of the oligomannose substrate Man5GlcNAc2, suggesting that FUT8 can catalyze core fucosylation of N-glycans lacking an α1,3-arm GlcNAc in cells.
Dual Roles of O-Glucose Glycans Redundant with Monosaccharide O-Fucose on Notch in Notch TraffickingNotch is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions and controls various cell-fate specifications in metazoans. The extracellular domain of Notch contains multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. At least five different glycans are found in distinct sites within these EGF-like repeats. The function of these individual glycans in Notch signaling has been investigated, primarily by disrupting their individual glycosyltransferases. However, we are just beginning to understand the potential functional interactions between these glycans.
Mammalian α-1,6-Fucosyltransferase (FUT8) Is the Sole Enzyme Responsible for the N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase I-independent Core Fucosylation of High-mannose N-GlycansUnderstanding the biosynthetic pathway of protein glycosylation in various expression cell lines is important for controlling and modulating the glycosylation profiles of recombinant glycoproteins. We found that expression of erythropoietin (EPO) in a HEK293S N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I (GnT I)−/− cell line resulted in production of the Man5GlcNAc2 glycoforms, in which more than 50% were core-fucosylated, implicating a clear GnT I-independent core fucosylation pathway. Expression of GM-CSF and the ectodomain of FcγIIIA receptor led to ∼30% and 3% core fucosylation, suggesting that the level of core fucosylation also depends on the nature of the recombinant proteins.
Loss of α1,6-Fucosyltransferase Decreases Hippocampal Long Term Potentiation: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORE FUCOSYLATION IN THE REGULATION OF AMPA RECEPTOR HETEROMERIZATION AND CELLULAR SIGNALINGCore fucosylation is catalyzed by α1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8), which transfers a fucose residue to the innermost GlcNAc residue via α1,6-linkage on N-glycans in mammals. We previously reported that Fut8-knock-out (Fut8−/−) mice showed a schizophrenia-like phenotype and a decrease in working memory. To understand the underlying molecular mechanism, we analyzed early form long term potentiation (E-LTP), which is closely related to learning and memory in the hippocampus. The scale of E-LTP induced by high frequency stimulation was significantly decreased in Fut8−/− mice.