Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
The cell surface hyaluronidase TMEM2 is essential for systemic hyaluronan catabolism and turnoverAs a major component of the extracellular matrix, hyaluronan (HA) plays an important role in defining the biochemical and biophysical properties of tissues. In light of the extremely rapid turnover of HA and the impact of this turnover on HA biology, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying HA catabolism is key to understanding the in vivo functions of this unique polysaccharide. Here, we show that TMEM2, a recently identified cell surface hyaluronidase, plays an essential role in systemic HA turnover.
The cell surface hyaluronidase TMEM2 regulates cell adhesion and migration via degradation of hyaluronan at focal adhesion sitesThe extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in maintaining tissue homeostasis and poses a significant physical barrier to in vivo cell migration. Accordingly, as a means of enhancing tissue invasion, tumor cells use matrix metalloproteinases to degrade ECM proteins. However, the in vivo ECM is comprised not only of proteins but also of a variety of nonprotein components. Hyaluronan (HA), one of the most abundant nonprotein components of the interstitial ECM, forms a gel-like antiadhesive barrier that is impenetrable to particulate matter and cells.
Ischemic stroke disrupts the endothelial glycocalyx through activation of proHPSE via acrolein exposureInfiltration of peripheral immune cells after blood-brain barrier dysfunction causes severe inflammation after a stroke. Although the endothelial glycocalyx, a network of membrane-bound glycoproteins and proteoglycans that covers the lumen of endothelial cells, functions as a barrier to circulating cells, the relationship between stroke severity and glycocalyx dysfunction remains unclear. In this study, glycosaminoglycans, a component of the endothelial glycocalyx, were studied in the context of ischemic stroke using a photochemically induced thrombosis mouse model.
Angiostatic cues from the matrix: Endothelial cell autophagy meets hyaluronan biologyThe extracellular matrix encompasses a reservoir of bioactive macromolecules that modulates a cornucopia of biological functions. A prominent body of work posits matrix constituents as master regulators of autophagy and angiogenesis and provides molecular insight into how these two processes are coordinated. Here, we review current understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying hyaluronan and HAS2 regulation and the role of soluble proteoglycan in affecting autophagy and angiogenesis. Specifically, we assess the role of proteoglycan-evoked autophagy in regulating angiogenesis via the HAS2-hyaluronan axis and ATG9A, a novel HAS2 binding partner.
Loss of versican and production of hyaluronan in lung epithelial cells are associated with airway inflammation during RSV infectionAirway inflammation is a critical feature of lower respiratory tract infections caused by viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). A growing body of literature has demonstrated the importance of extracellular matrix changes such as the accumulation of hyaluronan (HA) and versican in the subepithelial space in promoting airway inflammation; however, whether these factors contribute to airway inflammation during RSV infection remains unknown. To test the hypothesis that RSV infection promotes inflammation via altered HA and versican production, we studied an ex vivo human bronchial epithelial cell (BEC)/human lung fibroblast (HLF) coculture model.
Presence of hyaluronan in lung alveoli in severe Covid-19: An opening for new treatment options?Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is characterized by inflammation of the lungs with increasing respiratory impairment. In fatal Covid-19, lungs at autopsy have been filled with a clear liquid jelly. However, the nature of this finding has not yet been determined. The aim of the study was to demonstrate whether the lungs of fatal Covid-19 contain hyaluronan, as it is associated with inflammation and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and may have the appearance of liquid jelly. Lung tissue obtained at autopsy from three deceased Covid-19 patients was processed for hyaluronan histochemistry using a direct staining method and compared with staining in normal lung tissue.
Cell-specific expression of the transcriptional regulator RHAMM provides a timing mechanism that controls appropriate wound re-epithelializationPrevention of aberrant cutaneous wound repair and appropriate regeneration of an intact and functional integument require the coordinated timing of fibroblast and keratinocyte migration. Here, we identified a mechanism whereby opposing cell-specific motogenic functions of a multifunctional intracellular and extracellular protein, the receptor for hyaluronan-mediated motility (RHAMM), coordinates fibroblast and keratinocyte migration speed and ensures appropriate timing of excisional wound closure.
Inter-α-inhibitor heavy chain-1 has an integrin-like 3D structure mediating immune regulatory activities and matrix stabilization during ovulationInter-α-inhibitor is a proteoglycan essential for mammalian reproduction and also plays a less well-characterized role in inflammation. It comprises two homologous “heavy chains” (HC1 and HC2) covalently attached to chondroitin sulfate on the bikunin core protein. Before ovulation, HCs are transferred onto the polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) to form covalent HC·HA complexes, thereby stabilizing an extracellular matrix around the oocyte required for fertilization. Additionally, such complexes form during inflammatory processes and mediate leukocyte adhesion in the synovial fluids of arthritis patients and protect against sepsis.
The cortical actin network regulates avidity-dependent binding of hyaluronan by the lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1Lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1) mediates the docking and entry of dendritic cells to lymphatic vessels through selective adhesion to its ligand hyaluronan in the leukocyte surface glycocalyx. To bind hyaluronan efficiently, LYVE-1 must undergo surface clustering, a process that is induced efficiently by the large cross-linked assemblages of glycosaminoglycan present within leukocyte pericellular matrices but is induced poorly by the shorter polymer alone. These properties suggested that LYVE-1 may have limited mobility in the endothelial plasma membrane, but no biophysical investigation of these parameters has been carried out to date.
Heparin inhibits proinflammatory and promotes anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization under hyperglycemic stressMonocytes are rapidly recruited to sites of diabetic complications and differentiate into macrophages. Previously, we showed that rat kidney mesangial cells dividing during hyperglycemic stress abnormally synthesize hyaluronan (HA) in intracellular compartments. This initiates a stress response, resulting in an extracellular HA matrix after division that recruits inflammatory cells. Cell–cell communication among macrophages that are recruited into the glomeruli and the damaged rat mesangial cells leads to diabetic nephropathy, fibrosis, and proteinurea, which are inhibited in heparin-treated diabetic rats.
Sirtuin 1 reduces hyaluronan synthase 2 expression by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and expression of the long-noncoding RNA HAS2–AS1Hyaluronan (HA) is one of the most prevalent glycosaminoglycans of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). Abnormal HA accumulation within blood vessel walls is associated with tissue inflammation and is prominent in most vascular pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) is the main hyaluronan synthase enzyme involved in HA synthesis and uses cytosolic UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-GlcNAc as substrates. The synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid can alter the NAD+/NADH ratio via the enzyme UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, which oxidizes the alcohol group at C6 to the COO− group.
HYBID (alias KIAA1199/CEMIP) and hyaluronan synthase coordinately regulate hyaluronan metabolism in histamine-stimulated skin fibroblastsThe immune-regulatory compound histamine is involved in the metabolism of the essential skin component hyaluronan (HA). We previously reported that histamine up-regulates the expression of HYBID (hyaluronan-binding protein involved in hyaluronan depolymerization, also called CEMIP or KIAA1199), which plays a key role in HA degradation. However, no information is available about histamine's effects on HA synthase (HAS) expression, the molecular sizes of HA species produced, and histamine receptors and their signaling pathways in skin fibroblasts.
Matrix-degrading protease ADAMTS-5 cleaves inter-α-inhibitor and releases active heavy chain 2 in synovial fluids from arthritic patientsDestruction of the cartilage matrix in joints is an important feature of arthritis. Proteolytic degradation of cartilage glycoproteins can contribute to the loss of matrix integrity. Human inter-α-inhibitor (IαI), which stabilizes the extracellular matrix, is composed of the light-chain serine proteinase inhibitor bikunin and two homologous heavy chains (HC1 and HC2) covalently linked through chondroitin 4-sulfate. Inflammation promotes the transfer of HCs from chondroitin 4-sulfate to hyaluronan by tumor necrosis factor–stimulated gene-6 protein (TSG-6).
Chondroprotective effects of 4-methylumbelliferone and hyaluronan synthase-2 overexpression involve changes in chondrocyte energy metabolismHyaluronan is a critical component of articular cartilage and partially helps retain aggrecan within the extracellular matrix of this tissue. During osteoarthritis, hyaluronan and aggrecan loss are an early sign of tissue damage. However, our recent attempts to mimic hyaluronan loss with the hyaluronan inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) did not exacerbate arthritis-like features of in vitro models of arthritis, but surprisingly, caused the reverse (i.e. provided potent chondroprotection). Moreover, the protective effects of 4MU did not depend on its role as a hyaluronan inhibitor.
Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) overexpression diminishes the procatabolic activity of chondrocytes by a mechanism independent of extracellular hyaluronanOsteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints caused in part by a change in the phenotype of resident chondrocytes within affected joints. This altered phenotype, often termed proinflammatory or procatabolic, features enhanced production of endoproteinases and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) as well as secretion of endogenous inflammatory mediators. Degradation and reduced retention of the proteoglycan aggrecan is an early event in OA. Enhanced turnover of hyaluronan (HA) is closely associated with changes in aggrecan.
4-Methylumbelliferyl glucuronide contributes to hyaluronan synthesis inhibition4-Methylumbelliferone (4-MU) inhibits hyaluronan (HA) synthesis and is an approved drug used for managing biliary spasm. However, rapid and efficient glucuronidation is thought to limit its utility for systemically inhibiting HA synthesis. In particular, 4-MU in mice has a short half-life, causing most of the drug to be present as the metabolite 4-methylumbelliferyl glucuronide (4-MUG), which makes it remarkable that 4-MU is effective at all. We report here that 4-MUG contributes to HA synthesis inhibition.
Heparin affects cytosolic glucose responses of hyperglycemic dividing mesangial cellsMesangial expansion underlies diabetic nephropathy, leading to sclerosis and renal failure. The glycosaminoglycan heparin inhibits mesangial cell growth, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, rat mesangial cells (RMCs) were growth-arrested in the G0/G1 phase of cell division, stimulated to divide in normal glucose (5.6 mm) or high glucose (25.6 mm) with or without heparin, and analyzed for glucose uptake. We observed that RMCs entering the G1 phase in normal glucose with or without heparin rapidly cease glucose uptake.
The journey of hyaluronan research in the Journal of Biological ChemistryHyaluronan has a very simple structure. It is a linear glycosaminoglycan composed of disaccharide units of GlcNAc and d-glucuronic acid with alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds that can be repeated 20,000 or more times, a molecular mass >8 million Da, and a length >20 μm. However, it has a very complex biology. It is a major, ubiquitous component of extracellular matrices involved in everything from fertilization, development, inflammations, to cancer. This JBC Review highlights some of these processes that were initiated through publications in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
A chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid lyase with poor activity to glucuronyl 4,6-O-disulfated N-acetylgalactosamine (E-type)–containing structuresGlcUAβ1–3GalNAc(4S,6S) (E unit)–rich domains have been shown to play key roles in various biological functions of chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, an enzyme that can specifically isolate such domains through the selective digestion of other domains in polysaccharides has not yet been reported. Here, we identified a glycosaminoglycan lyase from a marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509. This enzyme efficiently degraded hyaluronic acid (HA) and CS variants, but not E unit–rich CS-E, into unsaturated disaccharides; therefore, we designated this enzyme a CS-E–resisted HA/CS lyase (HCLase Er).
Hyaluronan content governs tissue stiffness in pancreatic islet inflammationWe have identified a novel role for hyaluronan (HA), an extracellular matrix polymer, in governing the mechanical properties of inflamed tissues. We recently reported that insulitis in type 1 diabetes of mice and humans is preceded by intraislet accumulation of HA, a highly hygroscopic polymer. Using the double transgenic DO11.10 × RIPmOVA (DORmO) mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we asked whether autoimmune insulitis was associated with changes in the stiffness of islets. To measure islet stiffness, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) and developed a novel “bed of nails”-like approach that uses quartz glass nanopillars to anchor islets, solving a long-standing problem of keeping tissue-scale objects immobilized while performing AFM.
TNF-stimulated gene 6 promotes formation of hyaluronan–inter-α-inhibitor heavy chain complexes necessary for ozone-induced airway hyperresponsivenessExposure to pollutants, such as ozone, exacerbates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is required to transfer inter-α-inhibitor heavy chains (HC) to hyaluronan (HA), facilitating HA receptor binding. TSG-6 is necessary for AHR in allergic asthma, because it facilitates the development of a pathological HA–HC matrix. However, the role of TSG-6 in acute airway inflammation is not well understood. Here, we hypothesized that TSG-6 is essential for the development of HA- and ozone-induced AHR.
Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)-induced CD44V6-NOX4 signaling in pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosisIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive clinical syndrome of fatal outcome. The lack of information about the signaling pathways that sustain fibrosis and the myofibroblast phenotype has prevented the development of targeted therapies for IPF. Our previous study showed that isolated fibrogenic lung fibroblasts have high endogenous levels of the hyaluronan receptor, CD44V6 (CD44 variant containing exon 6), which enhances the TGFβ1 autocrine signaling and induces fibroblasts to transdifferentiate into myofibroblasts.
Human Keratinocytes Respond to Extracellular UTP by Induction of Hyaluronan Synthase 2 Expression and Increased Hyaluronan SynthesisThe release of nucleotides into extracellular space is triggered by insults like wounding and ultraviolet radiation, resulting in stimulatory or inhibitory signals via plasma membrane nucleotide receptors. As similar insults are known to activate hyaluronan synthesis we explored the possibility that extracellular UTP or its breakdown products UDP and UMP act as mediators for hyaluronan synthase (HAS) activation in human epidermal keratinocytes. UTP increased hyaluronan both in the pericellular matrix and in the culture medium of HaCaT cells.
A mammalian homolog of the zebrafish transmembrane protein 2 (TMEM2) is the long-sought-after cell-surface hyaluronidaseHyaluronan (HA) is an extremely large polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan) involved in many cellular functions. HA catabolism is thought to involve the initial cleavage of extracellular high-molecular-weight (HMW) HA into intermediate-size HA by an extracellular or cell-surface hyaluronidase, internalization of intermediate-size HA, and complete degradation into monosaccharides in lysosomes. Despite considerable research, the identity of the hyaluronidase responsible for the initial HA cleavage in the extracellular space remains elusive.
Versican Deficiency Significantly Reduces Lung Inflammatory Response Induced by Polyinosine-Polycytidylic Acid StimulationViral infection is an exacerbating factor contributing to chronic airway diseases, such as asthma, via mechanisms that are still unclear. Polyinosine-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)), a Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist used as a mimetic to study viral infection, has been shown to elicit inflammatory responses in lungs and to exacerbate pulmonary allergic reactions in animal models. Previously, we have shown that poly(I:C) stimulates lung fibroblasts to accumulate an extracellular matrix (ECM), enriched in hyaluronan (HA) and its binding partner versican, which promotes monocyte adhesion.