Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
ADAM10 and ADAM17 proteases mediate proinflammatory cytokine-induced and constitutive cleavage of endomucin from the endothelial surfaceContact between inflammatory cells and endothelial cells (ECs) is a crucial step in vascular inflammation. Recently, we demonstrated that the cell-surface level of endomucin (EMCN), a heavily O-glycosylated single-transmembrane sialomucin, interferes with the interactions between inflammatory cells and ECs. We have also shown that, in response to an inflammatory stimulus, EMCN is cleared from the cell surface by an unknown mechanism. In this study, using adenovirus-mediated overexpression of a tagged EMCN in human umbilical vein ECs, we found that treatment with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or the strong oxidant pervanadate leads to loss of cell-surface EMCN and increases the levels of the C-terminal fragment of EMCN 3- to 4-fold.
Inter-α-inhibitor heavy chain-1 has an integrin-like 3D structure mediating immune regulatory activities and matrix stabilization during ovulationInter-α-inhibitor is a proteoglycan essential for mammalian reproduction and also plays a less well-characterized role in inflammation. It comprises two homologous “heavy chains” (HC1 and HC2) covalently attached to chondroitin sulfate on the bikunin core protein. Before ovulation, HCs are transferred onto the polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) to form covalent HC·HA complexes, thereby stabilizing an extracellular matrix around the oocyte required for fertilization. Additionally, such complexes form during inflammatory processes and mediate leukocyte adhesion in the synovial fluids of arthritis patients and protect against sepsis.
Heparin inhibits proinflammatory and promotes anti-inflammatory macrophage polarization under hyperglycemic stressMonocytes are rapidly recruited to sites of diabetic complications and differentiate into macrophages. Previously, we showed that rat kidney mesangial cells dividing during hyperglycemic stress abnormally synthesize hyaluronan (HA) in intracellular compartments. This initiates a stress response, resulting in an extracellular HA matrix after division that recruits inflammatory cells. Cell–cell communication among macrophages that are recruited into the glomeruli and the damaged rat mesangial cells leads to diabetic nephropathy, fibrosis, and proteinurea, which are inhibited in heparin-treated diabetic rats.
Sirtuin 1 reduces hyaluronan synthase 2 expression by inhibiting nuclear translocation of NF-κB and expression of the long-noncoding RNA HAS2–AS1Hyaluronan (HA) is one of the most prevalent glycosaminoglycans of the vascular extracellular matrix (ECM). Abnormal HA accumulation within blood vessel walls is associated with tissue inflammation and is prominent in most vascular pathological conditions such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) is the main hyaluronan synthase enzyme involved in HA synthesis and uses cytosolic UDP-glucuronic acid and UDP-GlcNAc as substrates. The synthesis of UDP-glucuronic acid can alter the NAD+/NADH ratio via the enzyme UDP-glucose dehydrogenase, which oxidizes the alcohol group at C6 to the COO− group.
Inhibition of CD44 induces apoptosis, inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinase expression in tendinopathyApoptosis has emerged as a primary cause of tendinopathy. CD44 signaling pathways exert anti-apoptotic and -inflammatory effects on tumor cells, chondrocytes, and fibroblast-like synoviocytes. The aim of this study was to examine the association among CD44, apoptosis, and inflammation in tendinopathy. Expression of CD44 and apoptotic cell numbers in tendon tissue from patients with long head of biceps (LHB) tendinopathy were determined according to the histological grades of tendinopathy. Primary tenocytes from Achilles tendon of Sprague–Dawley rats 1 week after collagenase injection were cultured with an antagonizing antibody against CD44.
Chondroprotective effects of 4-methylumbelliferone and hyaluronan synthase-2 overexpression involve changes in chondrocyte energy metabolismHyaluronan is a critical component of articular cartilage and partially helps retain aggrecan within the extracellular matrix of this tissue. During osteoarthritis, hyaluronan and aggrecan loss are an early sign of tissue damage. However, our recent attempts to mimic hyaluronan loss with the hyaluronan inhibitor 4-methylumbelliferone (4MU) did not exacerbate arthritis-like features of in vitro models of arthritis, but surprisingly, caused the reverse (i.e. provided potent chondroprotection). Moreover, the protective effects of 4MU did not depend on its role as a hyaluronan inhibitor.
Hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS2) overexpression diminishes the procatabolic activity of chondrocytes by a mechanism independent of extracellular hyaluronanOsteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive degenerative disease of the joints caused in part by a change in the phenotype of resident chondrocytes within affected joints. This altered phenotype, often termed proinflammatory or procatabolic, features enhanced production of endoproteinases and matrix metallo-proteinases (MMPs) as well as secretion of endogenous inflammatory mediators. Degradation and reduced retention of the proteoglycan aggrecan is an early event in OA. Enhanced turnover of hyaluronan (HA) is closely associated with changes in aggrecan.
Hepatic heparan sulfate is a master regulator of hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis in human hepatocytes and miceHepcidin is a liver-derived peptide hormone that controls systemic iron homeostasis. Its expression is regulated by the bone morphogenetic protein 6 (BMP6)/SMAD1/5/8 pathway and by the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 6 (IL6). Proteoglycans that function as receptors of these signaling proteins in the liver are commonly decorated by heparan sulfate, but the potential role of hepatic heparan sulfate in hepcidin expression and iron homeostasis is unclear. Here, we show that modulation of hepatic heparan sulfate significantly alters hepcidin expression and iron metabolism both in vitro and in vivo.
Matrix metalloproteinases inactivate the proinflammatory functions of secreted moonlighting tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetaseTryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (WRS) is a cytosolic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase essential for protein synthesis. WRS is also one of a growing number of intracellular proteins that are attributed distinct noncanonical “moonlighting” functions in the extracellular milieu. Moonlighting aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases regulate processes such as inflammation, but how these multifunctional enzymes are themselves regulated remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that WRS is secreted from human macrophages, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to the proinflammatory cytokine interferon γ (IFNγ).
Elevated O-GlcNAcylation enhances pro-inflammatory Th17 function by altering the intracellular lipid microenvironmentChronic, low-grade inflammation increases the risk for atherosclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity in diseases such as obesity and diabetes. Levels of CD4+ T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which secrete interleukin 17A (IL-17A), are increased in obesity and contribute to the inflammatory milieu; however, the relationship between signaling events triggered by excess nutrient levels and IL-17A–mediated inflammation is unclear. Here, using cytokine, quantitative real-time PCR, immunoprecipitation, and ChIP assays, along with lipidomics and MS-based approaches, we show that increased levels of the nutrient-responsive, post-translational protein modification, O-GlcNAc, are present in naive CD4+ T cells from a diet-induced obesity murine model and that elevated O-GlcNAc levels increase IL-17A production.
Heparin affects cytosolic glucose responses of hyperglycemic dividing mesangial cellsMesangial expansion underlies diabetic nephropathy, leading to sclerosis and renal failure. The glycosaminoglycan heparin inhibits mesangial cell growth, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Here, rat mesangial cells (RMCs) were growth-arrested in the G0/G1 phase of cell division, stimulated to divide in normal glucose (5.6 mm) or high glucose (25.6 mm) with or without heparin, and analyzed for glucose uptake. We observed that RMCs entering the G1 phase in normal glucose with or without heparin rapidly cease glucose uptake.
The journey of hyaluronan research in the Journal of Biological ChemistryHyaluronan has a very simple structure. It is a linear glycosaminoglycan composed of disaccharide units of GlcNAc and d-glucuronic acid with alternating β-1,4 and β-1,3 glycosidic bonds that can be repeated 20,000 or more times, a molecular mass >8 million Da, and a length >20 μm. However, it has a very complex biology. It is a major, ubiquitous component of extracellular matrices involved in everything from fertilization, development, inflammations, to cancer. This JBC Review highlights some of these processes that were initiated through publications in the Journal of Biological Chemistry.
Glucosamine improves survival in a mouse model of sepsis and attenuates sepsis-induced lung injury and inflammationThe aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of glucosamine (GlcN) on septic lethality and sepsis-induced inflammation using animal models of mice and zebrafish. GlcN pretreatment improved survival in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis mouse model and attenuated lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced septic lung injury and systemic inflammation. GlcN suppressed LPS-induced M1-specific but not M2-specific gene expression. Furthermore, increased expressions of inflammatory genes in visceral tissue of LPS-injected zebrafish were suppressed by GlcN.
Intestinal mucin activates human dendritic cells and IL-8 production in a glycan-specific mannerCross-talk between different components of the intestinal barrier and the immune system may be important in maintaining gut homeostasis. A crucial part of the gut barrier is the mucus layer, a cross-linked gel on top of the intestinal epithelium that consists predominantly of the mucin glycoprotein MUC2. However, whether the mucin layer actively regulates intestinal immune cell responses is not clear. Because recent evidence suggests that intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) may be regulated by the mucus layer, we purified intestinal mucin, incubated it with human DCs, and determined the functional effects.
Extrinsic sialylation is dynamically regulated by systemic triggers in vivoRecent reports have documented that extracellular sialyltransferases can remodel both cell-surface and secreted glycans by a process other than the canonical cell-autonomous glycosylation that occurs within the intracellular secretory apparatus. Despite association of the abundance of these extracellular sialyltransferases, particularly ST6Gal-1, with disease states such as cancer and a variety of inflammatory conditions, the prevalence of this extrinsic glycosylation pathway in vivo remains unknown.
Glycan Bound to the Selectin Low Affinity State Engages Glu-88 to Stabilize the High Affinity State under ForceSelectin interactions with fucosylated glycan ligands mediate leukocyte rolling in the vasculature under shear forces. Crystal structures of P- and E-selectin suggest a two-state model in which ligand binding to the lectin domain closes loop 83–89 around the Ca2+ coordination site, enabling Glu-88 to engage Ca2+ and fucose. This triggers further allostery that opens the lectin/EGF domain hinge. The model posits that force accelerates transition from the bent (low affinity) to the extended (high affinity) state.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated iNOS Induction Is Increased by Glucosamine under Normal Glucose Conditions but Is Inhibited by Glucosamine under High Glucose Conditions in Macrophage CellsWe investigated the regulatory effect of glucosamine (GlcN) for the production of nitric oxide (NO) and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) under various glucose conditions in macrophage cells. At normal glucose concentrations, GlcN dose dependently increased LPS-stimulated production of NO/iNOS. However, GlcN suppressed NO/iNOS production under high glucose culture conditions. Moreover, GlcN suppressed LPS-induced up-regulation of COX-2, IL-6, and TNF-α mRNAs under 25 mm glucose conditions yet did not inhibit up-regulation under 5 mm glucose conditions.
Cytokine-induced MMP13 Expression in Human Chondrocytes Is Dependent on Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF3) RegulationIrreversible breakdown of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) by the collagenase matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP13) represents a key event in osteoarthritis (OA) progression. Although inflammation is most commonly associated with inflammatory joint diseases, it also occurs in OA and is thus relevant to the prevalent tissue destruction. Here, inflammation generates a cFOS AP-1 early response that indirectly affects MMP13 gene expression. To ascertain a more direct effect on prolonged MMP13 production we examined the potential molecular events occurring between the rapid, transient expression of cFOS and the subsequent MMP13 induction.
Thrombin Cleavage of Inter-α-inhibitor Heavy Chain 1 Regulates Leukocyte Binding to an Inflammatory Hyaluronan MatrixDynamic alterations of the extracellular matrix in response to injury directly modulate inflammation and consequently the promotion and resolution of disease. During inflammation, hyaluronan (HA) is increased at sites of inflammation where it may be covalently modified with the heavy chains (HC) of inter-α-trypsin inhibitor. Deposition of this unique, pathological form of HA (HC-HA) leads to the formation of cable-like structures that promote adhesion of leukocytes. Naive mononuclear leukocytes bind specifically to inflammation-associated HA matrices but do not adhere to HA constitutively expressed under homeostatic conditions.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-stimulated Gene-6 (TSG-6) Is Constitutively Expressed in Adult Central Nervous System (CNS) and Associated with Astrocyte-mediated Glial Scar Formation following Spinal Cord InjuryTumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) binds to hyaluronan and can reorganize/stabilize its structure, also enhancing the binding of this glycosaminoglycan to its cell surface receptor, CD44. TSG-6 is rapidly up-regulated in response to inflammatory cytokines protecting tissues from the damaging effects of inflammation. Despite TSG-6 treatment having been shown to improve outcomes in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury, TSG-6 expression has not been extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS).
Heparin Decreases in Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα)-induced Endothelial Stress Responses Require Transmembrane Protein 184A and Induction of Dual Specificity Phosphatase 1Despite the large number of heparin and heparan sulfate binding proteins, the molecular mechanism(s) by which heparin alters vascular cell physiology is not well understood. Studies with vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) indicate a role for induction of dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) that decreases ERK activity and results in decreased cell proliferation, which depends on specific heparin binding. The hypothesis that unfractionated heparin functions to decrease inflammatory signal transduction in endothelial cells (ECs) through heparin-induced expression of DUSP1 was tested.
Identification of an Endogenously Generated Cryptic Collagen Epitope (XL313) That May Selectively Regulate Angiogenesis by an Integrin Yes-associated Protein (YAP) Mechano-transduction PathwayExtracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling regulates angiogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms by which structural changes in ECM proteins contribute to angiogenesis are not fully understood. Integrins are molecules with the ability to detect compositional and structural changes within the ECM and integrate this information into a network of signaling circuits that coordinate context-dependent cell behavior. The role of integrin αvβ3 in angiogenesis is complex, as evidence exists for both positive and negative functions.
Replacing the Promoter of the Murine Gene Encoding P-selectin with the Human Promoter Confers Human-like Basal and Inducible Expression in MiceIn humans and mice, megakaryocytes/platelets and endothelial cells constitutively synthesize P-selectin and mobilize it to the plasma membrane to mediate leukocyte rolling during inflammation. TNF-α, interleukin 1β, and LPS markedly increase P-selectin mRNA in mice but decrease P-selectin mRNA in humans. Transgenic mice bearing the entire human SELP gene recapitulate basal and inducible expression of human P-selectin and reveal human-specific differences in P-selectin function. Differences in the human SELP and murine Selp promoters account for divergent expression in vitro, but their significance in vivo is not known.
The Responses of Hyperglycemic Dividing Mesangial Cells to Heparin Are Mediated by the Non-reducing Terminal TrisaccharideBackground: Heparin prevents intracellular hyaluronan synthesis and subsequent autophagy in hyperglycemic dividing mesangial cells.Results: The non-reducing terminal trisaccharide of heparin is sufficient for this response.Conclusion: This heparin trisaccharide motif is exposed by the mammalian heparanase and is recognized by a receptor on dividing cells.Significance: The trisaccharide does not have the anti-coagulant properties of heparin.
Single and Compound Knock-outs of MicroRNA (miRNA)-155 and Its Angiogenic Gene Target CCN1 in Mice Alter Vascular and Neovascular Growth in the Retina via Resident MicrogliaBackground: MicroRNA-155 is a proinflammatory small RNA, but its function in pathological angiogenesis is unknown.Results: MicroRNA-155 deficiency increases angiogenic protein CCN1 expression, which harnesses retinal neovascularization by reducing both microglia activation and inflammation.Conclusion: The microRNA-155/CCN1 regulatory axis regulates angiogenic and inflammatory responses in the retina.Significance: Modulation of microRNA-155 and CCN1 interaction is potentially beneficial in retinal neovascularization therapy.