Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
Fractionation of sulfated galactan from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis separates its anticoagulant and anti-SARS-CoV-2 propertiesSulfation pattern and molecular weight (MW) play a key role in the biological actions of sulfated glycans. Besides anticoagulant effects, certain sulfated glycans can also exhibit anti-SARS-CoV-2 properties. To develop a more selective antiviral carbohydrate, an efficient strategy to separate these two actions is required. In this work, low MW fractions derived from the red alga Botryocladia occidentalis sulfated galactan (BoSG) were generated, structurally characterized, and tested for activity against SARS-CoV-2 and blood coagulation.
Pantoea stewartii WceF is a glycan biofilm-modifying enzyme with a bacteriophage tailspike-like foldPathogenic microorganisms often reside in glycan-based biofilms. Concentration and chain length distribution of these mostly anionic exopolysaccharides (EPS) determine the overall biophysical properties of a biofilm and result in a highly viscous environment. Bacterial communities regulate this biofilm state via intracellular small-molecule signaling to initiate EPS synthesis. Reorganization or degradation of this glycan matrix, however, requires the action of extracellular glycosidases. So far, these were mainly described for bacteriophages that must degrade biofilms for gaining access to host bacteria.
An enzyme-based protocol for cell-free synthesis of nature-identical capsular oligosaccharides from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (App) is the etiological agent of acute porcine pneumonia and responsible for severe economic losses worldwide. The capsule polymer of App serotype 1 (App1) consists of [4)-GlcNAc-β(1,6)-Gal-α-1-(PO4-] repeating units that are O-acetylated at O-6 of the GlcNAc. It is a major virulence factor and was used in previous studies in the successful generation of an experimental glycoconjugate vaccine. However, the application of glycoconjugate vaccines in the animal health sector is limited, presumably because of the high costs associated with harvesting the polymer from pathogen culture.
Influence of sulfonated and diet-derived human milk oligosaccharides on the infant microbiome and immune markersHuman milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) promote the development of the neonatal intestinal, immune, and nervous systems and has recently received considerable attention. Here we investigated how the maternal diet affects HMO biosynthesis and how any diet-induced HMO alterations influence the infant gut microbiome and immunity. Using capillary electrophoresis and MS-based analyses, we extracted and measured HMOs from breast milk samples and then correlated their levels with results from validated 24-h diet recall surveys and breast milk fatty acids.
Avidity of α-fucose on human milk oligosaccharides and blood group–unrelated oligo/polyfucoses is essential for potent norovirus-binding targetsThere is agreement with respect to norovirus infection routes in humans regarding binding of the pathogen to gastrointestinal epithelia via recognition of blood group–active mucin-typeO-glycans as the initiating and essential event. Among food additives playing a potential role in applications to protect newborns, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) as competitors are of major importance. By focusing on fractions of high-molecular mass HMOs with high fucose contents, we attempted to identify the structural elements required for norovirus GII.4 (Sydney 2012, JX459908) capsid binding in neoglycolipid-based arrays.
A chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid lyase with poor activity to glucuronyl 4,6-O-disulfated N-acetylgalactosamine (E-type)–containing structuresGlcUAβ1–3GalNAc(4S,6S) (E unit)–rich domains have been shown to play key roles in various biological functions of chondroitin sulfate (CS). However, an enzyme that can specifically isolate such domains through the selective digestion of other domains in polysaccharides has not yet been reported. Here, we identified a glycosaminoglycan lyase from a marine bacterium Vibrio sp. FC509. This enzyme efficiently degraded hyaluronic acid (HA) and CS variants, but not E unit–rich CS-E, into unsaturated disaccharides; therefore, we designated this enzyme a CS-E–resisted HA/CS lyase (HCLase Er).
Identification and characterization of a core fucosidase from the bacterium Elizabethkingia meningosepticaAll reported α-l-fucosidases catalyze the removal of nonreducing terminal l-fucoses from oligosaccharides or their conjugates, while having no capacity to hydrolyze core fucoses in glycoproteins directly. Here, we identified an α-fucosidase from the bacterium Elizabethkingia meningoseptica with catalytic activity against core α-1,3-fucosylated substrates, and we named it core fucosidase I (cFase I). Using site-specific mutational analysis, we found that three acidic residues (Asp-242, Glu-302, and Glu-315) in the predicted active pocket are critical for cFase I activity, with Asp-242 and Glu-315 acting as a pair of classic nucleophile and acid/base residues and Glu-302 acting in an as yet undefined role.
Analysis of substrate specificity of Trypanosoma brucei oligosaccharyltransferases (OSTs) by functional expression of domain-swapped chimeras in yeastN-Linked protein glycosylation is an essential and highly conserved post-translational modification in eukaryotes. The transfer of a glycan from a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) donor to the asparagine residue of a nascent polypeptide chain is catalyzed by an oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Trypanosoma brucei encodes three paralogue single-protein OSTs called TbSTT3A, TbSTT3B, and TbSTT3C that can functionally complement the Saccharomyces cerevisiae OST, making it an ideal experimental system to study the fundamental properties of OST activity.
Human milk oligosaccharides inhibit growth of group B StreptococcusStreptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is a leading cause of invasive bacterial infections in newborns, typically acquired vertically during childbirth secondary to maternal vaginal colonization. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have important nutritional and biological activities that guide the development of the immune system of the infant and shape the composition of normal gut microbiota. In this manner, HMOs help protect against pathogen colonization and reduce the risk of infection.
Ligand-bound Structures and Site-directed Mutagenesis Identify the Acceptor and Secondary Binding Sites of Streptomyces coelicolor Maltosyltransferase GlgEGlgE is a maltosyltransferase involved in α-glucan biosynthesis in bacteria that has been genetically validated as a target for tuberculosis therapies. Crystals of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme diffract at low resolution so most structural studies have been with the very similar Streptomyces coelicolor GlgE isoform 1. Although the donor binding site for α-maltose 1-phosphate had been previously structurally defined, the acceptor site had not. Using mutagenesis, kinetics, and protein crystallography of the S.
Biochemical Characterization of Bifunctional 3-Deoxy-β-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic Acid (β-Kdo) Transferase KpsC from Escherichia coli Involved in Capsule Biosynthesis3-Deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (Kdo) is an essential component of bacterial lipopolysaccharides, where it provides the linkage between lipid and carbohydrate moieties. In all known LPS structures, Kdo residues possess α-anomeric configurations, and the corresponding inverting α-Kdo transferases are well characterized. Recently, it has been shown that a large group of capsular polysaccharides from Gram-negative bacteria, produced by ATP-binding cassette transporter-dependent pathways, are also attached to a lipid anchor through a conserved Kdo oligosaccharide.
Structures of Exopolysaccharides Involved in Receptor-mediated Perception of Mesorhizobium loti by Lotus japonicusIn the symbiosis formed between Mesorhizobium loti strain R7A and Lotus japonicus Gifu, rhizobial exopolysaccharide (EPS) plays an important role in infection thread formation. Mutants of strain R7A affected in early exopolysaccharide biosynthetic steps form nitrogen-fixing nodules on L. japonicus Gifu after a delay, whereas mutants affected in mid or late biosynthetic steps induce uninfected nodule primordia. Recently, it was shown that a plant receptor-like kinase, EPR3, binds low molecular mass exopolysaccharide from strain R7A to regulate bacterial passage through the plant's epidermal cell layer (Kawaharada, Y., Kelly, S., Nielsen, M.
Endo-F3 Glycosynthase Mutants Enable Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of Core-fucosylated Triantennary Complex Type Glycopeptides and GlycoproteinsChemoenzymatic synthesis is emerging as a promising approach to the synthesis of homogeneous glycopeptides and glycoproteins highly demanded for functional glycomics studies, but its generality relies on the availability of a range of enzymes with high catalytic efficiency and well defined substrate specificity. We describe in this paper the discovery of glycosynthase mutants derived from Elizabethkingia meningoseptica endoglycosidase F3 (Endo-F3) of the GH18 family, which are devoid of the inherent hydrolytic activity but are able to take glycan oxazolines for transglycosylation.
Non-lysosomal Degradation of Singly Phosphorylated Oligosaccharides Initiated by the Action of a Cytosolic Endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidasePhosphorylated oligosaccharides (POSs) are produced by the degradation of dolichol-linked oligosaccharides (DLOs) by an unclarified mechanism in mammalian cells. Although POSs are exclusively found in the cytosol, their intracellular fates remain unclear. Our findings indicate that POSs are catabolized via a non-lysosomal glycan degradation pathway that involves a cytosolic endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase). Quantitative and structural analyses of POSs revealed that ablation of the ENGase results in the significant accumulation of POSs with a hexasaccharide structure composed of Manα1,2Manα1,3(Manα1,6)Manβ1,4GlcNAcβ1,4GlcNAc.
Uncovering the Catalytic Direction of Chondroitin AC Exolyase: FROM THE REDUCING END TOWARDS THE NON-REDUCING ENDGlycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are polysaccharides that play vital functional roles in numerous biological processes, and compounds belonging to this class have been implicated in a wide variety of diseases. Chondroitin AC lyase (ChnAC) (EC 18.104.22.168) catalyzes the degradation of various GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate and hyaluronic acid, to give the corresponding disaccharides containing an Δ4-unsaturated uronic acid at their non-reducing terminus. ChnAC has been isolated from various bacteria and utilized as an enzymatic tool for study and evaluating the sequencing of GAGs.
Cooperative Interactions of Oligosaccharide and Peptide Moieties of a Glycopeptide Derived from IgE with Galectin-9We previously showed that galectin-9 suppresses degranulation of mast cells through protein-glycan interaction with IgE. To elucidate the mechanism of the interaction in detail, we focused on identification and structural analysis of IgE glycans responsible for the galectin-9-induced suppression using mouse monoclonal IgE (TIB-141). TIB-141 in combination with the antigen induced degranulation of RBL-2H3 cells, which was almost completely inhibited by human and mouse galectin-9. Sequential digestion of TIB-141 with lysyl endopeptidase and trypsin resulted in the identification of a glycopeptide (H-Lys13-Try3; 48 amino acid residues) with a single N-linked oligosaccharide near the N terminus capable of neutralizing the effect of galectin-9 and another glycopeptide with two N-linked oligosaccharides (H-Lys13-Try1; 16 amino acid residues) having lower activity.
Role of Deacetylase Activity of N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase 1 in Forming N-Sulfated Domain in Heparan SulfateBackground: N-Deacetylase/N-Sulfotransferase is a bifunctional enzyme in the heparan sulfate biosynthetic pathway.Results: N-Deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase domains display cooperative effects as a bifunctional enzyme; individually expressed N-deacetylase and N-sulfotransferase domains do not exhibit the same level of cooperativity.Conclusion: The bifunctionality of N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase is required to form N-S domain in heparan sulfate.Significance: This work uncovers the process by which NDST-1 constructs functional heparan sulfate.