Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
Lysyl hydroxylase 3–mediated post-translational modifications are required for proper biosynthesis of collagen α1α1α2(IV)Collagens are the most abundant proteins in the body and among the most biosynthetically complex. A molecular ensemble of over 20 endoplasmic reticulum resident proteins participates in collagen biosynthesis and contributes to heterogeneous post-translational modifications. Pathogenic variants in genes encoding collagens cause connective tissue disorders, including osteogenesis imperfecta, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and Gould syndrome (caused by mutations in COL4A1 and COL4A2), and pathogenic variants in genes encoding proteins required for collagen biosynthesis can cause similar but overlapping clinical phenotypes.
Specificity of a β-porphyranase produced by the carrageenophyte red alga Chondrus crispus and implications of this unexpected activity on red algal biologyThe carrageenophyte red alga Chondrus crispus produces three family 16 glycoside hydrolases (CcGH16-1, CcGH16-2, and CcGH16-3). Phylogenetically, the red algal GH16 members are closely related to bacterial GH16 homologs from subfamilies 13 and 14, which have characterized marine bacterial β-carrageenase and β-porphyranase activities, respectively, yet the functions of these CcGH16 hydrolases have not been determined. Here, we first confirmed the gene locus of the ccgh16-3 gene in the alga to facilitate further investigation.
The stem region of α1,6-fucosyltransferase FUT8 is required for multimer formation but not catalytic activityAlpha-1,6-fucosyltransferase (FUT8) synthesizes core fucose in N-glycans, which plays critical roles in various physiological processes. FUT8, as with many other glycosyltransferases, is a type-II membrane protein, and its large C-terminal catalytic domain is linked to the FUT8 stem region, which comprises two α-helices. Although the stem regions of several glycosyltransferases are involved in the regulation of Golgi localization, the functions of the FUT8 stem region have not been clarified as yet.
A mutated glycosaminoglycan-binding domain functions as a novel probe to selectively target heparin-like epitopes on tumor cellsThe high heterogeneity and mutation rate of cancer cells often lead to the failure of targeted therapy, and therefore, new targets for multitarget therapy of tumors are urgently needed. Aberrantly expressed glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis and are promising new targets. Recently, the GAG-binding domain rVAR2 of the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein was identified as a probe targeting cancer-associated chondroitin sulfate A-like epitopes. In this study, we found that rVAR2 could also bind to heparin (Hep) and chondroitin sulfate E.
Cancer-associated Notch receptor variants lead to O-fucosylation defects that deregulate Notch signalingNOTCH1 is a transmembrane receptor that initiates a signaling pathway involved in embryonic development of adult tissue homeostasis. The extracellular domain of NOTCH1 is composed largely of epidermal growth factor–like repeats (EGFs), many of which can be O-fucosylated at a specific consensus sequence by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1). O-fucosylation of NOTCH1 is necessary for its function. The Notch pathway is deregulated in many cancers, and alteration of POFUT1 has been reported in several cancers, but further investigation is needed to assess whether there is deregulation of the Notch pathway associated with mutations that affect O-fucosylation in cancers.
N-glycosylation of mannose receptor (CD206) regulates glycan binding by C-type lectin domainsThe macrophage mannose receptor (MR, CD206) is a transmembrane endocytic lectin receptor, expressed in selected immune and endothelial cells, and is involved in immunity and maintaining homeostasis. Eight of the ten extracellular domains of the MR are C-type lectin domains (CTLDs) which mediate the binding of mannose, fucose, and GlcNAc in a calcium-dependent manner. Previous studies indicated that self-glycosylation of MR regulates its glycan binding. To further explore this structure–function relationship, we studied herein a recombinant version of mouse MR CTLD4-7 fused to human Fc-portion of IgG (MR-Fc).
Glycosyltransferases EXTL2 and EXTL3 cellular balance dictates heparan sulfate biosynthesis and shapes gastric cancer cell motility and invasionHeparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans (HSPGs) are abundant glycoconjugates in cells’ glycocalyx and extracellular matrix. By acting as scaffolds for protein–protein interactions, HSPGs modulate extracellular ligand gradients, cell signaling networks, and cell–extracellular matrix crosstalk. Aberrant expression of HSPGs and enzymes involved in HSPG biosynthesis and processing has been reported in tumors, with impact in cancer cell behavior and tumor microenvironment properties. However, the roles of specific glycosyltransferases in the deregulated biosynthesis of HSPGs are not fully understood.
Sequential in vitro enzymatic N-glycoprotein modification reveals site-specific rates of glycoenzyme processingN-glycosylation is an essential eukaryotic posttranslational modification that affects various glycoprotein properties, including folding, solubility, protein–protein interactions, and half-life. N-glycans are processed in the secretory pathway to form varied ensembles of structures, and diversity at a single site on a glycoprotein is termed ‘microheterogeneity’. To understand the factors that influence glycan microheterogeneity, we hypothesized that local steric and electrostatic factors surrounding each site influence glycan availability for enzymatic modification.
Microarray-guided evaluation of the frequency, B-cell origins, and selectivity of human glycan-binding antibodies reveals new insights and novel antibodiesThe immune system produces a diverse collection of antiglycan antibodies that are critical for host defense. At present, however, we know very little about the binding properties, origins, and sequences of these antibodies because of a lack of access to a variety of defined individual antibodies. To address this challenge, we used a glycan microarray with over 800 different components to screen a panel of 516 human monoclonal antibodies that had been randomly cloned from different B-cell subsets originating from healthy human subjects.
ER entry pathway and glycosylation of GPI-anchored proteins are determined by N-terminal signal sequence and C-terminal GPI-attachment sequenceNewly synthesized proteins in the secretory pathway, including glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins (GPI-APs), need to be correctly targeted and imported into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. GPI-APs are synthesized in the cytosol as preproproteins, which contain an N-terminal signal sequence (SS), mature protein part, and C-terminal GPI-attachment sequence (GPI-AS), and translocated into the ER lumen where SS and GPI-AS are removed, generating mature GPI-APs. However, how various GPI-APs are translocated into the ER lumen in mammalian cells is unclear.
A previously uncharacterized O-glycopeptidase from Akkermansia muciniphila requires the Tn-antigen for cleavage of the peptide bondAkkermansia muciniphila is key member of the human gut microbiota that impacts many features of host health. A major characteristic of this bacterium is its interaction with host mucin, which is abundant in the gut environment, and its ability to metabolize mucin as a nutrient source. The machinery deployed by A. muciniphila to enable this interaction appears to be extensive and sophisticated, yet it is incompletely defined. The uncharacterized protein AMUC_1438 is encoded by a gene that was previously shown to be upregulated when the bacterium is grown on mucin.
N-glycosylation modulates enzymatic activity of Trypanosoma congolense trans-sialidaseTrypanosomes cause the devastating disease trypanosomiasis, in which the action of trans-sialidase (TS) enzymes harbored on their surface is a key virulence factor. TS enzymes are N-glycosylated, but the biological functions of their glycans have remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the influence of N-glycans on the enzymatic activity and structural stability of TconTS1, a recombinant TS from the African parasite Trypanosoma congolense. We expressed the enzyme in Chinese hamster ovary Lec1 cells, which produce high-mannose type N-glycans similar to the TS N-glycosylation pattern in vivo.
Examination of differential glycoprotein preferences of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV isozymes a and bThe N-glycans attached to proteins contain various GlcNAc branches, the aberrant formation of which correlates with various diseases. N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa (GnT-IVa or MGAT4A) and Gnt-IVb (or MGAT4B) are isoenzymes that catalyze the formation of the β1,4-GlcNAc branch in N-glycans. However, the functional differences between these isozymes remain unresolved. Here, using cellular and UDP-Glo enzyme assays, we discovered that GnT-IVa and GnT-IVb have distinct glycoprotein preferences both in cells and in vitro.
Oxygen-dependent regulation of E3(SCF)ubiquitin ligases and a Skp1-associated JmjD6 homolog in development of the social amoeba DictyosteliumE3-SCF (Skp1/cullin-1/F-box protein) polyubiquitin ligases activate the proteasomal degradation of over a thousand proteins, but the evolutionary diversification of the F-box protein (FBP) family of substrate receptor subunits has challenged their elucidation in protists. Here, we expand the FBP candidate list in the social amoeba Dictyostelium and show that the Skp1 interactome is highly remodeled as cells transition from growth to multicellular development. Importantly, a subset of candidate FBPs was less represented when the posttranslational hydroxylation and glycosylation of Skp1 was abrogated by deletion of the O2-sensing Skp1 prolyl hydroxylase PhyA.
EGF promotes PKM2 O-GlcNAcylation by stimulating O-GlcNAc transferase phosphorylation at Y976 and their subsequent associationEpidermal growth factor (EGF) is one of the most well-characterized growth factors and plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Its receptor EGFR has been extensively explored as a therapeutic target against multiple types of cancers, such as lung cancer and glioblastoma. Recent studies have established a connection between deregulated EGF signaling and metabolic reprogramming, especially rewiring in aerobic glycolysis, which is also known as the Warburg effect and recognized as a hallmark in cancer.
O-GlcNAcylation stabilizes the autophagy-initiating kinase ULK1 by inhibiting chaperone-mediated autophagy upon HPV infectionHuman papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Previously, we demonstrated that HPV16 oncogene E6 or E6/E7 transduction increases the abundance of O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT), but OGT substrates affected by this increase are unclear. Here, we focus on the effects of O-GlcNAcylation on HPV-positive HNSCCs. We found that upon HPV infection, Unc-51-like kinase 1 (ULK1), an autophagy-initiating kinase, is hyper-O-GlcNAcylated, stabilized, and linked with autophagy elevation.
Unusual β1-4-galactosidase activity of an α1-6-mannosidase from Xanthomonas manihotis in the processing of branched hybrid and complex glycansMannosidases are a diverse group of glycoside hydrolases that play crucial roles in mannose trimming of oligomannose glycans, glycoconjugates, and glycoproteins involved in numerous cellular processes, such as glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, structure regulation, cellular recognition, and cell–pathogen interactions. Exomannosidases and endomannosidases cleave specific glycosidic bonds of mannoside linkages in glycans and can be used in enzyme-based methods for sequencing of isomeric glycan structures.
O-GlcNAc transferase regulates p21 protein levels and cell proliferation through the FoxM1–Skp2 axis in a p53-independent mannerThe protein product of the CDKN1A gene, p21, has been extensively characterized as a negative regulator of the cell cycle. Nevertheless, it is clear that p21 has manifold complex and context-dependent roles that can be either tumor suppressive or oncogenic. Most well studied as a transcriptional target of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, there are other means by which p21 levels can be regulated. In this study, we show that pharmacological inhibition or siRNA-mediated reduction of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), the enzyme responsible for glycosylation of intracellular proteins, increases expression of p21 in both p53-dependent and p53-independent manners in nontransformed and cancer cells.
Incorporation of fucose into glycans independent of the GDP-fucose transporter SLC35C1 preferentially utilizes salvaged over de novo GDP-fucoseMutations in the SLC35C1 gene encoding the Golgi GDP-fucose transporter are known to cause leukocyte adhesion deficiency II. However, improvement of fucosylation in leukocyte adhesion deficiency II patients treated with exogenous fucose suggests the existence of an SLC35C1-independent route of GDP-fucose transport, which remains a mystery. To investigate this phenomenon, we developed and characterized a human cell–based model deficient in SLC35C1 activity. The resulting cells were cultured in the presence/absence of exogenous fucose and mannose, followed by examination of fucosylation potential and nucleotide sugar levels.
Histone methyltransferase Dot1L recruits O-GlcNAc transferase to target chromatin sites to regulate histone O-GlcNAcylationO-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) is the distinctive enzyme responsible for catalyzing O-GlcNAc addition to the serine or threonine residues of thousands of cytoplasmic and nuclear proteins involved in such basic cellular processes as DNA damage repair, RNA splicing, and transcription preinitiation and initiation complex assembly. However, the molecular mechanism by which OGT regulates gene transcription remains elusive. Using proximity labeling-based mass spectrometry, here, we searched for functional partners of OGT and identified interacting protein Dot1L, a conserved and unique histone methyltransferase known to mediate histone H3 Lys79 methylation, which is required for gene transcription, DNA damage repair, cell proliferation, and embryo development.
Fringe GlcNAc-transferases differentially extend O-fucose on endogenous NOTCH1 in mouse activated T cellsNOTCH1 is a transmembrane receptor that initiates a cell–cell signaling pathway controlling various cell fate specifications in metazoans. The addition of O-fucose by protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (POFUT1) to epidermal growth factor-like (EGF) repeats in the NOTCH1 extracellular domain is essential for NOTCH1 function, and modification of O-fucose with GlcNAc by the Fringe family of glycosyltransferases modulates Notch activity. Prior cell-based studies showed that POFUT1 modifies EGF repeats containing the appropriate consensus sequence at high stoichiometry, while Fringe GlcNAc-transferases (LFNG, MFNG, and RFNG) modify O-fucose on only a subset of NOTCH1 EGF repeats.
O-fucosylation stabilizes the TSR3 motif in thrombospondin-1 by interacting with nearby amino acids and protecting a disulfide bondThrombospondin type-1 repeats (TSRs) are small protein motifs containing six conserved cysteines forming three disulfide bonds that can be modified with an O-linked fucose. Protein O-fucosyltransferase 2 (POFUT2) catalyzes the addition of O-fucose to TSRs containing the appropriate consensus sequence, and the O-fucose modification can be elongated to a Glucose-Fucose disaccharide with the addition of glucose by β3-glucosyltransferase (B3GLCT). Elimination of Pofut2 in mice results in embryonic lethality in mice, highlighting the biological significance of O-fucose modification on TSRs.
Human brain sialoglycan ligand for CD33, a microglial inhibitory Siglec implicated in Alzheimer’s diseaseAlzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by accumulation of misfolded proteins. Genetic studies implicate microglia, brain-resident phagocytic immune cells, in AD pathogenesis. As positive effectors, microglia clear toxic proteins, whereas as negative effectors, they release proinflammatory mediators. An imbalance of these functions contributes to AD progression. Polymorphisms of human CD33, an inhibitory microglial receptor, are linked to AD susceptibility; higher CD33 expression correlates with increased AD risk.
Identification of distinct N-glycosylation patterns on extracellular vesicles from small-cell and non–small-cell lung cancer cellsAsparagine-linked glycosylation (N-glycosylation) of proteins in the cancer secretome has been gaining increasing attention as a potential biomarker for cancer detection and diagnosis. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) constitute a large part of the cancer secretome, yet little is known about whether their N-glycosylation status reflects known cancer characteristics. Here, we investigated the N-glycosylation of sEVs released from small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non–small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cells.
Sialoglycan-binding patterns of bacterial AB5 toxin B subunits correlate with host range and toxicity, indicating evolution independent of A subunitsMany pathogenic bacteria secrete AB5 toxins that can be virulence factors. Cytotoxic A subunits are delivered to the cytosol following B subunit binding to specific host cell surface glycans. Some B subunits are not associated with A subunits, for example, YpeB of Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of plague. Plague cannot be eradicated because of Y. pestis' adaptability to numerous hosts. We previously showed selective binding of other B5 pentamers to a sialoglycan microarray, with sialic acid (Sia) preferences corresponding to those prominently expressed by various hosts, for example, N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac; prominent in humans) or N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc; prominent in ruminant mammals and rodents).