Glycobiology and Extracellular Matrices
- Inter-α-inhibitor is a proteoglycan essential for mammalian reproduction and also plays a less well-characterized role in inflammation. It comprises two homologous “heavy chains” (HC1 and HC2) covalently attached to chondroitin sulfate on the bikunin core protein. Before ovulation, HCs are transferred onto the polysaccharide hyaluronan (HA) to form covalent HC·HA complexes, thereby stabilizing an extracellular matrix around the oocyte required for fertilization. Additionally, such complexes form during inflammatory processes and mediate leukocyte adhesion in the synovial fluids of arthritis patients and protect against sepsis.
- The lymphatic vessel endothelial receptor LYVE-1 is implicated in the uptake of hyaluronan (HA) and trafficking of leukocytes to draining lymph nodes. Yet LYVE-1 has only weak affinity for hyaluronan and depends on receptor clustering and higher order ligand organization for durable binding in lymphatic endothelium. An unusual feature of LYVE-1 not found in other HA receptors is the potential to form disulfide-linked homodimers. However, their influence on function has not been investigated. Here we show LYVE-1 homodimers are the predominant configuration in lymphatic endothelium in vitro and in vivo, and formation solely requires the unpaired cysteine residue Cys-201 within the membrane-proximal domain, yielding a 15-fold higher HA binding affinity and an ∼67-fold slower off-rate than the monomer.
- Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) binds to hyaluronan and can reorganize/stabilize its structure, also enhancing the binding of this glycosaminoglycan to its cell surface receptor, CD44. TSG-6 is rapidly up-regulated in response to inflammatory cytokines protecting tissues from the damaging effects of inflammation. Despite TSG-6 treatment having been shown to improve outcomes in an experimental model of traumatic brain injury, TSG-6 expression has not been extensively studied in the central nervous system (CNS).
- TNF-stimulated gene-6 (TSG-6) is a multifunctional protein secreted in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli by a wide range of cells, including neutrophils, monocytes, and endothelial cells. It has been shown to mediate anti-inflammatory and protective effects when administered in disease models, in part, by reducing neutrophil infiltration. Human TSG-6 inhibits neutrophil migration by binding CXCL8 through its Link module (Link_TSG6) and interfering with the presentation of CXCL8 on cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), an interaction that is vital for the function of many chemokines.
- The lymphatic endothelial receptor LYVE-1 has been implicated in both uptake of hyaluronan (HA) from tissue matrix and in facilitating transit of leukocytes and tumor cells through lymphatic vessels based largely on in vitro studies with recombinant receptor in transfected fibroblasts. Curiously, however, LYVE-1 in lymphatic endothelium displays little if any binding to HA in vitro, and this has led to the conclusion that the native receptor is functionally silenced, a feature that is difficult to reconcile with its proposed in vivo functions.
- Background: TSG-6 (TNF-stimulated gene-6)-dependent transfer of heavy chains from inter-α-inhibitor onto hyaluronan is critical for ovulation.Results: A calcium ion and chelating glutamate within TSG-6 mediate formation of the covalent heavy chain-TSG-6 intermediate.Conclusion: TSG-6 transferase activity rather than hyaluronan binding drives cumulus expansion.Significance: The role of metal ions in hyaluronan-heavy chain formation has been determined.