- T cell-mediated immunity is governed primarily by T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide-human leukocyte antigen (pHLA) complexes and is essential for immunosurveillance and disease control. This interaction is generally stabilized by interactions between the HLA surface and TCR germline-encoded complementarity-determining region (CDR) loops 1 and 2, whereas peptide selectivity is guided by direct interactions with the TCR CDR3 loops. Here, we solved the structure of a newly identified TCR in complex with a clinically relevant peptide derived from the cancer testis antigen melanoma antigen-A4 (MAGE-A4).
- CD4+ T-cells recognize peptide antigens, in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules (HLA-II), which through peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) can extend beyond the limits of the HLA binding. The role of the PFRs during antigen recognition is not fully understood; however, recent studies have indicated that these regions can influence T-cell receptor (TCR) affinity and pHLA-II stability. Here, using various biochemical approaches including peptide sensitivity ELISA and ELISpot assays, peptide-binding assays and HLA-II tetramer staining, we focused on CD4+ T-cell responses against a tumor antigen, 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), which have been associated with improved control of colorectal cancer.
- T-cell cross-reactivity is essential for effective immune surveillance but has also been implicated as a pathway to autoimmunity. Previous studies have demonstrated that T-cell receptors (TCRs) that focus on a minimal motif within the peptide are able to facilitate a high level of T-cell cross-reactivity. However, the structural database shows that most TCRs exhibit less focused antigen binding involving contact with more peptide residues. To further explore the structural features that allow the clonally expressed TCR to functionally engage with multiple peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs), we examined the ILA1 CD8+ T-cell clone that responds to a peptide sequence derived from human telomerase reverse transcriptase.
- Human CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes can mediate tumor regression in melanoma through the specific recognition of HLA-restricted peptides. Because of the relatively weak affinity of most anti-cancer T-cell receptors (TCRs), there is growing emphasis on immunizing melanoma patients with altered peptide ligands in order to induce strong anti-tumor immunity capable of breaking tolerance toward these self-antigens. However, previous studies have shown that these immunogenic designer peptides are not always effective.
- Background CD8+ T-cells play a central role in type 1 diabetes (T1D) by recognizing insulin peptides displayed by MHC. Results A novel flexible MHC binding mode accommodates extra C-terminal peptide residues. Conclusion Unusual peptide-MHC binding might explain weak TCR affinity of a natural T1D epitope. Significance MHC peptide binding can be highly flexible around the F-binding pocket.