The metalloprotease ADAM10 generates soluble interleukin-2 receptor alpha (sCD25) in vivoThe cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) plays a critical role in controlling the immune homeostasis by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of immune cells, especially T cells. IL-2 signaling is mediated via the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) complex, which consists of the IL-2Rα (CD25), the IL-2Rβ, and the IL-2Rγ. While the latter are required for signal transduction, IL-2Rα controls the ligand-binding affinity of the receptor complex. A soluble form of the IL-2Rα (sIL-2Rα) is found constitutively in human serum, though its levels are increased under various pathophysiological conditions.
Annexin A5 is essential for PKCθ translocation during T-cell activationT-cell activation is a critical part of the adaptive immune system, enabling responses to foreign cells and external stimulus. In this process, T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) activation stimulates translocation of the downstream kinase PKCθ to the membrane, leading to NF-κB activation and thus transcription of relevant genes. However, the details of how PKCθ is recruited to the membrane remain enigmatic. It is known that annexin A5 (ANXA5), a calcium-dependent membrane-binding protein, has been reported to mediate PKCδ activation by interaction with PKCδ, a homologue of PKCθ, which implicates a potential role of ANXA5 involved in PKCθ signaling.
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) receptor signaling regulates kinase networks and phosphatidylinositol metabolism during T-cell activationThe cytokine content in tissue microenvironments shapes the functional capacity of a T cell. This capacity depends on the integration of extracellular signaling through multiple receptors, including the T-cell receptor (TCR), co-receptors, and cytokine receptors. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signals through its cognate receptor, TGFβR, to SMAD family member proteins and contributes to the generation of a transcriptional program that promotes regulatory T-cell differentiation. In addition to transcription, here we identified specific signaling networks that are regulated by TGFβR.
Structures of the MHC-I molecule BF2*1501 disclose the preferred presentation of an H5N1 virus-derived epitopeLethal infections by strains of the highly-pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 pose serious threats to both the poultry industry and public health worldwide. A lack of confirmed HPAIV epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) has hindered the utilization of CD8+ T-cell–mediated immunity and has precluded the development of effectively diversified epitope-based vaccination approaches. In particular, an HPAIV H5N1 CTL-recognized epitope based on the peptide MHC-I–β2m (pMHC-I) complex has not yet been designed.
The structural features that distinguish PD-L2 from PD-L1 emerged in placental mammalsProgrammed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor on T lymphocytes that is critical for modulating adaptive immunity. As such, it has been successfully exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 are ligands for PD-1; the former is ubiquitously expressed in inflamed tissues, whereas the latter is restricted to antigen-presenting cells. PD-L2 binds to PD-1 with 3-fold stronger affinity compared with PD-L1. To date, this affinity discrepancy has been attributed to a tryptophan (W110PD-L2) that is unique to PD-L2 and has been assumed to fit snuggly into a pocket on the PD-1 surface.
The murine CD94/NKG2 ligand, Qa-1b, is a high-affinity, functional ligand for the CD8αα homodimerThe immune co-receptor CD8 molecule (CD8) has two subunits, CD8α and CD8β, which can assemble into homo or heterodimers. Nonclassical (class-Ib) major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules (MHC-Ibs) have recently been identified as ligands for the CD8αα homodimer. This was demonstrated by the observation that histocompatibility 2, Q region locus 10 (H2-Q10) is a high-affinity ligand for CD8αα which also binds the MHC-Ib molecule H2-TL. This suggests that MHC-Ib proteins may be an extended source of CD8αα ligands.
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II peptide flanking residues tune the immunogenicity of a human tumor-derived epitopeCD4+ T-cells recognize peptide antigens, in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules (HLA-II), which through peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) can extend beyond the limits of the HLA binding. The role of the PFRs during antigen recognition is not fully understood; however, recent studies have indicated that these regions can influence T-cell receptor (TCR) affinity and pHLA-II stability. Here, using various biochemical approaches including peptide sensitivity ELISA and ELISpot assays, peptide-binding assays and HLA-II tetramer staining, we focused on CD4+ T-cell responses against a tumor antigen, 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), which have been associated with improved control of colorectal cancer.
NLRP3 negatively regulates Treg differentiation through Kpna2-mediated nuclear translocationNaïve CD4+ T cells in the periphery differentiate into regulatory T cells (Tregs) in which Foxp3 is expressed for their suppressive function. NLRP3, a pro-inflammatory molecule, is known to be involved in inflammasome activation associated with several diseases. Recently, the expression of NLRP3 in CD4+ T cells, as well as in myeloid cells, has been described; however, a role of T cell–intrinsic NLRP3 in Treg differentiation remains unknown. Here, we report that NLRP3 impeded the expression of Foxp3 independent of inflammasome activation in Tregs.
Crystal structure of the human 4-1BB/4-1BBL complex4-1BBL is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and is the ligand for the TNFR superfamily receptor, 4-1BB. 4-1BB plays an immunomodulatory role in T cells and NK cells, and agonists of this receptor have garnered strong attention as potential immunotherapy agents. Broadly speaking, the structural features of TNF superfamily members, their receptors, and ligand-receptor complexes are similar. However, a published crystal structure of human 4-1BBL suggests that it may be unique in this regard, exhibiting a three-bladed propeller-like trimer assembly that is distinctly different from that observed in other family members.
MicroRNA-205 Maintains T Cell Development following Stress by Regulating Forkhead Box N1 and Selected ChemokinesThe thymus, an organ responsible for T cell development, is one of the more stress-sensitive tissues in the body. Stress, in the form of infections, radiation exposure, and steroids, impairs thymic epithelial cell (TEC) functions and induces the programmed cell death of immature thymocytes. MicroRNAs are small noncoding RNAs involved in tissue repair and homeostasis, with several supporting T cell development. We report that miR-205, an epithelial-specific miR, maintains thymopoiesis following inflammatory perturbations.