Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II peptide flanking residues tune the immunogenicity of a human tumor-derived epitopeCD4+ T-cells recognize peptide antigens, in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II molecules (HLA-II), which through peptide-flanking residues (PFRs) can extend beyond the limits of the HLA binding. The role of the PFRs during antigen recognition is not fully understood; however, recent studies have indicated that these regions can influence T-cell receptor (TCR) affinity and pHLA-II stability. Here, using various biochemical approaches including peptide sensitivity ELISA and ELISpot assays, peptide-binding assays and HLA-II tetramer staining, we focused on CD4+ T-cell responses against a tumor antigen, 5T4 oncofetal trophoblast glycoprotein (5T4), which have been associated with improved control of colorectal cancer.
Structural insights into the mechanism of action of a biparatopic anti-HER2 antibodyPathways of human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors are activated upon ligand-dependent or -independent homo- or heterodimerization and their subsequent transphosphorylation. Overexpression of these receptors positively correlates with transphosphorylation rates and increased tumor growth rates. MEDI4276, an anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) biparatopic antibody–drug conjugate, has two paratopes within each antibody arm. One, 39S, is aiming at the HER2 site involved in receptor dimerization and the second, single chain fragment (scFv), mimicking trastuzumab.
Pre-T Cell Receptors (Pre-TCRs) Leverage Vβ Complementarity Determining Regions (CDRs) and Hydrophobic Patch in Mechanosensing Thymic Self-ligandsThe pre-T cell receptor (pre-TCR) is a pTα-β heterodimer functioning in early αβ T cell development. Although once thought to be ligand-autonomous, recent studies show that pre-TCRs participate in thymic repertoire formation through recognition of peptides bound to major histocompatibility molecules (pMHC). Using optical tweezers, we probe pre-TCR bonding with pMHC at the single molecule level. Like the αβTCR, the pre-TCR is a mechanosensor undergoing force-based structural transitions that dynamically enhance bond lifetimes and exploiting allosteric control regulated via the Cβ FG loop region.