- The cytokine macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been characterized as a key immunomodulator and mediator of various diseases. Small molecule inhibitors based on the conserved enzymatic pocket of MIF have been valuable in elucidating MIF mechanisms and developing translational strategies. In contrast, our mechanistic understanding of the MIF homolog MIF-2/d-dopachrome tautomerase (d-DT) and its clinical translation has been hampered, partly because MIF-2–selective inhibitors have been elusive.
- A critical step in antigen presentation is the degradative processing of peptides by aminopeptidases in the endoplasmic reticulum. It is unclear whether these enzymes act only on free peptides or on those bound to their major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-I–presenting molecules. A recent study examined the structure and biophysics of N-terminally extended peptides in complex with MHC-I, revealing the conformational adjustment of MHC to permit both binding of the peptide core and exposure of the peptide N terminus.