Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is an inhibitory receptor on T lymphocytes that is critical for modulating adaptive immunity. As such, it has been successfully exploited for cancer immunotherapy. Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 are ligands for PD-1; the former is ubiquitously expressed in inflamed tissues, whereas the latter is restricted to antigen-presenting cells. PD-L2 binds to PD-1 with 3-fold stronger affinity compared with PD-L1. To date, this affinity discrepancy has been attributed to a tryptophan (W110PD-L2) that is unique to PD-L2 and has been assumed to fit snuggly into a pocket on the PD-1 surface.