- Celiac disease is a T cell-mediated chronic inflammatory condition often characterized by human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2.5 molecules presenting gluten epitopes derived from wheat, barley, and rye. Although some T cells exhibit cross-reactivity toward distinct gluten epitopes, the structural basis underpinning such cross-reactivity is unclear. Here, we investigated the T-cell receptor specificity and cross-reactivity of two immunodominant wheat gluten epitopes, DQ2.5-glia-α1a (PFPQPELPY) and DQ2.5-glia-ω1 (PFPQPEQPF).
- Celiac disease (CeD) provides an opportunity to study the specificity underlying human T-cell responses to an array of similar epitopes presented by the same human leukocyte antigen II (HLA-II) molecule. Here, we investigated T-cell responses to the two immunodominant and highly homologous HLA-DQ2.5–restricted gluten epitopes, DQ2.5-glia-α1a (PFPQPELPY) and DQ2.5-glia-ω1 (PFPQPEQPF). Using HLA-DQ2.5–DQ2.5-glia-α1a and HLA-DQ2.5–DQ2.5-glia-ω1 tetramers and single-cell αβ T-cell receptor (TCR) sequencing, we observed that despite similarity in biased variable-gene usage in the TCR repertoire responding to these nearly identical peptide–HLA-II complexes, most of the T cells are specific for either of the two epitopes.
- Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2.5 (DQA1*05/DQB1*02) is a class-II major histocompatibility complex protein associated with both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease. One unusual feature of DQ2.5 is its high class-II-associated invariant chain peptide (CLIP) content. Moreover, HLA-DQ2.5 preferentially binds the non-canonical CLIP2 over the canonical CLIP1. To better understand the structural basis of HLA-DQ2.5's unusual CLIP association characteristics, better insight into the HLA-DQ2.5·CLIP complex structures is required.
- Transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is a Ca2+-dependent cross-linking enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of CD. We have previously characterized a panel of anti-TG2 mAbs generated from gut plasma cells of celiac patients and identified four epitopes (epitopes 1–4) located in the N-terminal part of TG2. Binding of the mAbs induced allosteric changes in TG2. Thus, we aimed to determine whether these mAbs could influence enzymatic activity through modulation of TG2 susceptibility to oxidative inactivation and Ca2+ affinity.
- Background: Knowledge of how celiac disease autoantibodies recognize transglutaminase 2 (TG2) is limited.Results: The interaction between TG2 and a celiac disease epitope 1 anti-TG2 antibody was studied by small angle x-ray scattering and mutational analysis.Conclusion: TG2 residues Arg-116 and His-134 are part of epitope 1.Significance: The study gives insights into key aspects of celiac disease.