- Primary cilia are sensors of chemical and mechanical signals in the extracellular environment. The formation of primary cilia (i.e. ciliogenesis) requires dynamic membrane trafficking events, and several Rab small GTPases, key regulators of membrane trafficking, have recently been reported to participate in ciliogenesis. However, the precise mechanisms of Rab-mediated membrane trafficking during ciliogenesis remain largely unknown. In the present study, we used a collection of siRNAs against 62 human Rabs to perform a comprehensive knockdown screening for Rabs that regulate serum starvation-induced ciliogenesis in human telomerase reverse transcriptase retinal pigment epithelium 1 (hTERT-RPE1) cells and succeeded in identifying Rab34 as an essential Rab.
- Polarized epithelial cells have functionally distinct apical and basolateral membranes through which they communicate with external and internal bodily environments, respectively. The establishment and maintenance of this asymmetric structure depend on polarized trafficking of specific cargos, but the precise molecular mechanism is incompletely understood. We previously showed that Rab35, a member of the Rab family small GTPases, differentially regulates the trafficking of an apical cargo, podocalyxin (PODXL), in two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cell cultures through specific interactions with two distinct effectors, OCRL inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase (OCRL) and ArfGAP with coiled-coil, ankyrin repeat and pleckstrin homology domains 2 (ACAP2), respectively.
- HPS4 biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 3 subunit 2 (HPS4) is one of the genes whose mutations have been associated with Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS), characterized by ocular albinism and susceptibility to bleeding because of defects in the biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles such as melanosomes. HPS4 protein forms a BLOC-3 complex with HPS1, another HPS gene product, and the complex has been proposed to function as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB32, a member of the Rab small GTPase family (Rab32), and Rab38 (Rab32/38-GEF) and also as a Rab9 effector.
- Two cell type-specific Rab proteins, Rab32 and Rab38 (Rab32/38), have been proposed as regulating the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes, including tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1 (Tyrp1), to melanosomes in melanocytes. Like other GTPases, Rab32/38 function as switch molecules that cycle between a GDP-bound inactive form and a GTP-bound active form; the cycle is thought to be regulated by an activating enzyme, guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF), and an inactivating enzyme, GTPase-activating protein (GAP), which stimulates the GTPase activity of Rab32/38.
- Background: Rab small GTPases are membrane trafficking proteins in eukaryotes.Results: Comprehensive knockdown screening identified six Rab isoforms that are involved in regulating Golgi morphology in HeLa-S3 cells.Conclusion: Five of the six Rabs, including Rab2A and Rab2B, non-redundantly regulate Golgi morphology. A Rab2B-specific effector, GARI-L4, also regulates it.Significance: This is the first study to systematically analyze all human Rabs in the Golgi.