Murine epithelial sodium (Na+) channel regulation by biliary factorsThe epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) mediates Na+ transport in several epithelia, including the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, distal colon, and biliary epithelium. Numerous factors regulate ENaC activity, including extracellular ligands, post-translational modifications, and membrane-resident lipids. However, ENaC regulation by bile acids and conjugated bilirubin, metabolites that are abundant in the biliary tree and intestinal tract and are sometimes elevated in the urine of individuals with advanced liver disease, remains poorly understood.
The epithelial Na+ channel γ subunit autoinhibitory tract suppresses channel activity by binding the γ subunit's finger–thumb domain interfaceEpithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) maturation and activation require proteolysis of both the α and γ subunits. Cleavage at multiple sites in the finger domain of each subunit liberates their autoinhibitory tracts. Synthetic peptides derived from the proteolytically released fragments inhibit the channel, likely by reconstituting key interactions removed by the proteolysis. We previously showed that a peptide derived from the α subunit's autoinhibitory sequence (α-8) binds at the α subunit's finger–thumb domain interface.
Pore-lining residues of MEC-4 and MEC-10 channel subunits tune the Caenorhabditis elegans degenerin channel's response to shear stressThe Caenorhabditis elegans MEC-4/MEC-10 channel mediates the worm's response to gentle body touch and is activated by laminar shear stress (LSS) when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Substitutions at multiple sites within the second transmembrane domain (TM2) of MEC-4 or MEC-10 abolish the gentle touch response in worms, but the roles of these residues in mechanosensing are unclear. The present study therefore examined the role of specific MEC-4 and MEC-10 TM2 residues in the channel's response to LSS.
Conserved cysteines in the finger domain of the epithelial Na+ channel α and γ subunits are proximal to the dynamic finger–thumb domain interfaceThe epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is a member of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels. In the structure of a related family member, the “thumb” domain’s base interacts with the pore, and its tip interacts with the divergent “finger” domain. Between the base and tip, the thumb domain is characterized by a conserved five-rung disulfide ladder holding together two anti-parallel α helices. The ENaC α and γ subunits’ finger domains harbor autoinhibitory tracts that can be proteolytically liberated to activate the channel and also host an ENaC-specific pair of cysteines.