Accessibility of ENaC extracellular domain central core residuesThe epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)/degenerin family has a similar extracellular architecture, where specific regulatory factors interact and alter channel gating behavior. The extracellular palm domain serves as a key link to the channel pore. In this study, we used cysteine-scanning mutagenesis to assess the functional effects of Cys-modifying reagents on palm domain β10 strand residues in mouse ENaC. Of the 13 ENaC α subunit mutants with Cys substitutions examined, only mutants at sites in the proximal region of β10 exhibited changes in channel activity in response to methanethiosulfonate reagents.
Analyses of epithelial Na+ channel variants reveal that an extracellular β-ball domain critically regulates ENaC gatingEpithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)-mediated Na+ transport has a key role in the regulation of extracellular fluid volume, blood pressure, and extracellular [K+]. Among the thousands of human ENaC variants, only a few exist whose functional consequences have been experimentally tested. Here, we used the Xenopus oocyte expression system to investigate the functional roles of four nonsynonymous human ENaC variants located within the β7-strand and its adjacent loop of the α-subunit extracellular β-ball domain.
A Na+ leak channel cloned from Trichoplax adhaerens extends extracellular pH and Ca2+ sensing for the DEG/ENaC family close to the base of MetazoaAcid-sensitive ion channels belonging to the degenerin/epithelial sodium channel (DEG/ENaC) family activate in response to extracellular protons and are considered unique to deuterostomes. However, sensitivity to pH/protons is more widespread, where, for example, human ENaC Na+ leak channels are potentiated and mouse BASIC and Caenorhabditis elegans ACD-1 Na+ leak channels are blocked by extracellular protons. For many DEG/ENaC channels, extracellular Ca2+ ions modulate gating, and in some cases, the binding of protons and Ca2+ is interdependent.
Activation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Degenerin Channel by Shear Stress Requires the MEC-10 SubunitMechanotransduction in Caenorhabditis elegans touch receptor neurons is mediated by an ion channel formed by MEC-4, MEC-10, and accessory proteins. To define the role of these subunits in the channel's response to mechanical force, we expressed degenerin channels comprising MEC-4 and MEC-10 in Xenopus oocytes and examined their response to laminar shear stress (LSS). Shear stress evoked a rapid increase in whole cell currents in oocytes expressing degenerin channels as well as channels with a MEC-4 degenerin mutation (MEC-4d), suggesting that C.
Functional Roles of Clusters of Hydrophobic and Polar Residues in the Epithelial Na+ Channel Knuckle DomainBackground: There are regulatory interactions between ENaC and extracellular factors.Results: Mutations of multiple α subunit knuckle residues activate ENaC by suppressing the inhibitory effect of Na+. Channels lacking the β or γ subunit knuckle have processing defects.Conclusion: Interactions between the α subunit knuckle and palm/finger domains regulate ENaC.Significance: Intrasubunit domain-domain interactions have important regulatory roles.