- In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, multidrug and toxic-compound extrusion (MATE) transporters catalyze the efflux of a broad range of cytotoxic compounds, including human-made antibiotics and anticancer drugs. MATEs are secondary-active antiporters, i.e., their drug-efflux activity is coupled to, and powered by, the uptake of ions down a preexisting transmembrane electrochemical gradient. Key aspects of this mechanism, however, remain to be delineated, such as its ion specificity and stoichiometry.
- Bacterial membrane proteins are integrated into membranes through the concerted activities of a series of integration factors, including membrane protein integrase (MPIase). However, how MPIase activity is complemented by other integration factors during membrane protein integration is incompletely understood. Here, using inverted inner-membrane vesicle and reconstituted (proteo)liposome preparations from Escherichia coli cells, along with membrane protein integration assays and the PURE system to produce membrane proteins, we found that anti-MPIase IgG inhibits the integration of both the Sec-independent substrate 3L-Pf3 coat and the Sec-dependent substrate MtlA into E.
- The choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta contains a chimeric rhodopsin protein composed of an N-terminal rhodopsin (Rh) domain and a C-terminal cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) domain. The Rh-PDE enzyme light-dependently decreases the concentrations of cyclic nucleotides such as cGMP and cAMP. Photoexcitation of purified full-length Rh-PDE yields an “M” intermediate with a deprotonated Schiff base, and its recovery is much faster than that of the enzyme domain. To gain structural and mechanistic insights into the Rh domain, here we expressed and purified the transmembrane domain of Rh-PDE, Rh-PDE(TMD), and analyzed it with transient absorption, light-induced difference UV-visible, and FTIR spectroscopy methods.