- Phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the lipid bilayer of plasma membranes in which phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is confined to the inner leaflet. ATP11A and ATP11C, type IV P-Type ATPases in plasma membranes, flip PtdSer from the outer to the inner leaflet, but involvement of other P4-ATPases is unclear. We herein demonstrated that once PtdSer was exposed on the cell surface of ATP11A−/−ATP11C−/− mouse T cell line (W3), its internalization to the inner leaflet of plasma membranes was negligible at 15 °C.
- ATP11C, a member of the P4-ATPase flippase, translocates phosphatidylserine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet, and maintains the asymmetric distribution of phosphatidylserine in the living cell. We present the crystal structures of a human plasma membrane flippase, ATP11C–CDC50A complex, in a stabilized E2P conformation. The structure revealed a deep longitudinal crevice along transmembrane helices continuing from the cell surface to the phospholipid occlusion site in the middle of the membrane.
- Flippases are enzymes that translocate phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn) from the outer to the inner leaflet in the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, leading to the asymmetric distribution of aminophospholipids in the membrane. One mammalian phospholipid flippase at the plasma membrane is ATP11C, a type IV P-type ATPase (P4-ATPase) that forms a heterocomplex with the transmembrane protein CDC50A. However, the structural features in CDC50A that support the function of ATP11C and other P4-ATPases have not been characterized.
- In plasma membranes, flippases translocate aminophospholipids such as phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic leaflet. Mammalian ATP11C, a type IV P-type ATPase, acts as a flippase at the plasma membrane. Here, by expressing 12 human type IV P-type ATPases in ATP11C-deficient cells, we determined that ATP8A2 and ATP11A can also act as plasma membrane flippases. As with ATP11C, ATP8A2 and ATP11A localized to the plasma membrane in a CDC50A-dependent manner.