- Structural analyses identified the central domain of ryanodine receptor (RyR) as a transducer converting conformational changes in the cytoplasmic platform to the RyR gate. The central domain is also a regulatory hub encompassing the Ca2+-, ATP-, and caffeine-binding sites. However, the role of the central domain in RyR activation and regulation has yet to be defined. Here, we mutated five residues that form the Ca2+ activation site and 10 residues with negatively charged or oxygen-containing side chains near the Ca2+ activation site.
- Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ cycling is governed by the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a). Abnormal SR Ca2+ cycling is thought to be the primary cause of Ca2+ alternans that can elicit ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac arrest. Although alterations in either RyR2 or SERCA2a function are expected to affect SR Ca2+ cycling, whether and to what extent altered RyR2 or SERCA2a function affects Ca2+ alternans is unclear. Here, we employed a gain-of-function RyR2 variant (R4496C) and the phospholamban-knockout (PLB-KO) mouse model to assess the effect of genetically enhanced RyR2 or SERCA2a function on Ca2+ alternans.
- The ryanodine receptor (RyR) channel pore is formed by four S6 inner helices, with its intracellular gate located at the S6 helix bundle crossing region. The cytoplasmic region of the extended S6 helix is held by the U motif of the central domain and is thought to control the opening and closing of the S6 helix bundle. However, the functional significance of the S6 cytoplasmic region in channel gating is unknown. Here we assessed the role of the S6 cytoplasmic region in the function of cardiac RyR (RyR2) via structure-guided site-directed mutagenesis.
- Recent three-dimensional structural studies reveal that the central domain of ryanodine receptor (RyR) serves as a transducer that converts long-range conformational changes into the gating of the channel pore. Interestingly, the central domain encompasses one of the mutation hotspots (corresponding to amino acid residues 3778–4201) that contains a number of cardiac RyR (RyR2) mutations associated with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) and atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the functional consequences of these central domain RyR2 mutations are not well understood.
- Background: Little is known about the distribution of cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) and its functional correlation in living cells.Results: Imaging live GFP-tagged RyR2 cardiomyocytes revealed Ca2+ sparks originated exclusively from RyR2 clusters distributed along z-lines and transverse tubules.Conclusion: The distribution of RyR2 clusters determines the spatial profile of Ca2+ release.Significance: RyR2 cluster distribution is an important determinant of Ca2+ release in the heart.