- In this sequel to the thematic collection of Minireviews on redox metabolism and signaling published last year, five articles plumb the redox metabolic pathways relevant to cell proliferation, stress response, and survival post-detachment from the extracellular matrix. The sixth article provides unexpected insights into the hepatic NAD(P)ome, revealing that more than half of these proteins reside outside the cytoplasmic and mitochondrial compartments, pointing to the paucity of knowledge on their functions.
- Life on oxygen predisposes cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by electron slippage in the electron transfer chain. Aerobic metabolism also generates superoxide (O2̇̄) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as bona fide products in reactions involving 1- or 2-electron reduction of O2. Although often viewed as dangerous, ROS are now recognized as important messengers in redox signaling pathways. A delicate balance between needed versus excessive ROS production distinguishes health from an array of disease states.
- Long before the recent thrust of scientific research on the microbiome, the importance of its interface with the host was being acknowledged by practices such as probiotic supplementation, e.g. after a course of antibiotics, which has the unwanted side effect of depleting commensal bacteria. The shared metabolite capital between the host and the microbiome is extensive and tightly controlled. However, despite the influence of microbe-derived metabolites on many aspects of host physiology, behavior, and pathology, our understanding of this metabolic interface is still in its infancy and its therapeutic targeting is largely untapped.