- Bioactive oxylipins play multiple roles during inflammation and in the immune response, with termination of their actions partly dependent on the activity of yet-to-be characterized dehydrogenases. Here, we report that human microsomal dehydrogenase reductase 9 (DHRS9, also known as SDR9C4 of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily) exhibits a robust oxidative activity toward oxylipins with hydroxyl groups located at carbons C9 and C13 of octadecanoids, C12 and C15 carbons of eicosanoids, and C14 carbon of docosanoids.
- Liver is the central metabolic hub that coordinates carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The bioactive derivative of vitamin A, retinoic acid (RA), was shown to regulate major metabolic genes including phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fatty acid synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and glucokinase among others. Expression levels of these genes undergo profound changes during adaptation to fasting or in metabolic diseases such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, it is unknown whether the levels of hepatic RA change during metabolic remodeling.
- Retinol dehydrogenases catalyze the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of retinoic acid, a bioactive lipid molecule that regulates the expression of hundreds of genes by binding to nuclear transcription factors, the retinoic acid receptors. Several enzymes exhibit retinol dehydrogenase activities in vitro; however, their physiological relevance for retinoic acid biosynthesis in vivo remains unclear. Here, we present evidence that two murine epidermal retinol dehydrogenases, short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family 16C member 5 (SDR16C5) and SDR16C6, contribute to retinoic acid biosynthesis in living cells and are also essential for the oxidation of retinol to retinaldehyde in vivo.