- Tankyrase 1 and 2, members of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase family, have previously been shown to play a role in insulin-mediated glucose uptake in adipocytes. However, their precise mechanism of action, and their role in insulin action in other cell types, such as myocytes, remains elusive. Treatment of differentiated L6 myotubes with the small molecule tankyrase inhibitor XAV939 resulted in insulin resistance as determined by impaired insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. Proteomic analysis of XAV939-treated myotubes identified down-regulation of several glucose transporter GLUT4 storage vesicle (GSV) proteins including RAB10, VAMP8, SORT1, and GLUT4.
- Mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, or both have been implicated in insulin resistance. However, disentangling the individual roles of these processes in insulin resistance has been difficult because they often occur in tandem, and tools that selectively increase oxidant production without impairing mitochondrial respiration have been lacking. Using the dimer/monomer status of peroxiredoxin isoforms as an indicator of compartmental hydrogen peroxide burden, we provide evidence that oxidative stress is localized to mitochondria in insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and adipose tissue from mice.
- Obesity is associated with metabolic dysfunction, including insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and with disorders such as cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and neurodegeneration. Typically, these pathologies are examined in discrete model systems and with limited temporal resolution, and whether these disorders co-occur is therefore unclear. To address this question, here we examined multiple physiological systems in male C57BL/6J mice following prolonged exposure to a high-fat/high-sucrose diet (HFHSD).
- Insulin resistance is a major risk factor for many diseases. However, its underlying mechanism remains unclear in part because it is triggered by a complex relationship between multiple factors, including genes and the environment. Here, we used metabolomics combined with computational methods to identify factors that classified insulin resistance across individual mice derived from three different mouse strains fed two different diets. Three inbred ILSXISS strains were fed high-fat or chow diets and subjected to metabolic phenotyping and metabolomics analysis of skeletal muscle.
- Background: Insulin regulates metabolism via the PI3K/Akt pathway.Results: A kinome siRNA screen identified PFKFB3, a glycolysis regulator, as a modulator of insulin action. Manipulation of PFKFB3 activity or glycolysis affected insulin signaling.Conclusion: Intracellular metabolism modulates important signal transduction pathways.Significance: The novel link between glycolysis and growth factor signaling has important implications for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
- Aside from glucose metabolism, insulin regulates a variety of pathways in peripheral tissues. Under insulin-resistant conditions, it is well known that insulin-stimulated glucose uptake is impaired, and many studies attribute this to a defect in Akt signaling. Here we make use of several insulin resistance models, including insulin-resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes and fat explants prepared from high fat-fed C57BL/6J and ob/ob mice, to comprehensively distinguish defective from unaffected aspects of insulin signaling and its downstream consequences in adipocytes.