mTORC2 modulates the amplitude and duration of GFAT1 Ser-243 phosphorylation to maintain flux through the hexosamine pathway during starvationThe mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) controls metabolic pathways in response to nutrients. Recently, we have shown that mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) modulates the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP) by promoting the expression of the key enzyme of the HBP, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate aminotransferase 1 (GFAT1). Here, we found that GFAT1 Ser-243 phosphorylation is also modulated in an mTORC2-dependent manner. In response to glutamine limitation, active mTORC2 prolongs the duration of Ser-243 phosphorylation, albeit at lower amplitude.
Inhibition of protein arginine methyltransferase 5 enhances hepatic mitochondrial biogenesisProtein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) regulates gene expression either transcriptionally by symmetric dimethylation of arginine residues on histones H4R3, H3R8, and H2AR3 or at the posttranslational level by methylation of nonhistone target proteins. Although emerging evidence suggests that PRMT5 functions as an oncogene, its role in metabolic diseases is not well-defined. We investigated the role of PRMT5 in promoting high-fat–induced hepatic steatosis. A high-fat diet up-regulated PRMT5 levels in the liver but not in other metabolically relevant tissues such as skeletal muscle or white and brown adipose tissue.
Deletion of interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (Irak1) improves glucose tolerance primarily by increasing insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscleChronic inflammation may contribute to insulin resistance via molecular cross-talk between pathways for pro-inflammatory and insulin signaling. Interleukin 1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) mediates pro-inflammatory signaling via IL-1 receptor/Toll-like receptors, which may contribute to insulin resistance, but this hypothesis is untested. Here, we used male Irak1 null (k/o) mice to investigate the metabolic role of IRAK-1. C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) and k/o mice had comparable body weights on low-fat and high-fat diets (LFD and HFD, respectively).
A Role for Ceramides, but Not Sphingomyelins, as Antagonists of Insulin Signaling and Mitochondrial Metabolism in C2C12 MyotubesThe accumulation of sphingolipids in obesity leads to impairments in insulin sensitivity and mitochondrial metabolism, but the precise species driving these defects is unclear. We have modeled these obesity-induced effects in cultured C2C12 myotubes, using BSA-conjugated palmitate to increase synthesis of endogenous sphingolipids and to inhibit insulin signaling and oxidative phosphorylation. Palmitate (a) induced the accumulation of sphingomyelin (SM) precursors such as sphinganine, dihydroceramide, and ceramide; (b) inhibited insulin stimulation of a central modulator of anabolic metabolism, Akt/PKB; (c) inhibited insulin-stimulated glycogen synthesis; and (d) decreased oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis.
PKD1 Inhibits AMPKα2 through Phosphorylation of Serine 491 and Impairs Insulin Signaling in Skeletal Muscle CellsAMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy-sensing enzyme whose activity is inhibited in settings of insulin resistance. Exposure to a high glucose concentration has recently been shown to increase phosphorylation of AMPK at Ser485/491 of its α1/α2 subunit; however, the mechanism by which it does so is not known. Diacylglycerol (DAG), which is also increased in muscle exposed to high glucose, activates a number of signaling molecules including protein kinase (PK)C and PKD1. We sought to determine whether PKC or PKD1 is involved in inhibition of AMPK by causing Ser485/491 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle cells.
Sustained Action of Ceramide on the Insulin Signaling Pathway in Muscle Cells: IMPLICATION OF THE DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASEIn vivo, ectopic accumulation of fatty acids in muscles leads to alterations in insulin signaling at both the IRS1 and Akt steps. However, in vitro treatments with saturated fatty acids or their derivative ceramide demonstrate an effect only at the Akt step. In this study, we adapted our experimental procedures to mimic the in vivo situation and show that the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR) is involved in the long-term effects of saturated fatty acids on IRS1. C2C12 or human muscle cells were incubated with palmitate or directly with ceramide for short or long periods, and insulin signaling pathway activity was evaluated.
Kinome Screen Identifies PFKFB3 and Glucose Metabolism as Important Regulators of the Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 Signaling PathwayBackground: Insulin regulates metabolism via the PI3K/Akt pathway.Results: A kinome siRNA screen identified PFKFB3, a glycolysis regulator, as a modulator of insulin action. Manipulation of PFKFB3 activity or glycolysis affected insulin signaling.Conclusion: Intracellular metabolism modulates important signal transduction pathways.Significance: The novel link between glycolysis and growth factor signaling has important implications for the treatment of metabolic diseases.
Insulin Regulates Retinol Dehydrogenase Expression and All-trans-retinoic Acid Biosynthesis through FoxO1Background: Retinoic acid regulates energy balance and induces phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression.Results: Refeeding, glucose, and insulin decrease retinoic acid in vivo. Insulin suppresses retinol dehydrogenase gene expression through suppressing FoxO1.Conclusion: Insulin inhibits retinoic acid biosynthesis through inhibition of FoxO1-induced Rdh10 gene expression.Significance: Insulin and retinoic acid exert counter balancing effects in regulating energy status.