- Crosstalk between muscle fibers and immune cells is well known in the processes of muscle repair after exercise, especially resistance exercise. In aerobic exercise, however, this crosstalk is not fully understood. In the present study, we found that macrophages, especially anti-inflammatory (M2) macrophages, and neutrophils accumulated in skeletal muscles of mice 24 h after a single bout of an aerobic exercise. The expression of oncostatin M (OSM), a member of the interleukin 6 family of cytokines, was also increased in muscle fibers immediately after the exercise.
- The angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)/angiotensin 1–7/MAS axis and the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic signaling system have both been shown to have the dual potential to improve insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in the liver. Recent studies have demonstrated that ACE2 can regulate the GABA signal in various tissues. Notwithstanding this evidence, the functional relationship between ACE2 and GABA signal in the liver under IR remains elusive. Here, we used high-fat diet–induced models of IR in C57BL/6 mice as well as ACE2KO and adeno-associated virus-mediated ACE2 overexpression mouse models to address this knowledge gap.
- Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) uncoupling in skeletal muscle and mitochondrial uncoupling via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown/beige adipose tissue are two mechanisms implicated in energy expenditure. Here, we investigated the effects of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibition via lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment on SERCA uncoupling in skeletal muscle and UCP1 expression in adipose. C2C12 and 3T3-L1 cells treated with LiCl had increased SERCA uncoupling and UCP1 protein levels, respectively, ultimately raising cellular respiration; however, this was only observed when LiCl treatment occurred throughout differentiation.