- Fasting hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus is caused by unregulated glucagon secretion that activates gluconeogenesis (GNG) and increases the use of pyruvate, lactate, amino acids, and glycerol. Studies of GNG in hepatocytes, however, tend to test a limited number of substrates at nonphysiologic concentrations. Therefore, we treated cultured primary hepatocytes with three identical substrate mixtures of pyruvate/lactate, glutamine, and glycerol at serum fasting concentrations, where a different U-13C– or 2-13C–labeled substrate was substituted in each mix.
- Ovarian cycle is controlled by circulating levels of the steroid hormone 17-β-estradiol, which is predominantly synthesized by the granulosa cells (GCs) of ovarian follicles. Our earlier studies showed that unsaturated fatty acids (USFs) downregulate and saturated fatty acids (SFAs) upregulate estradiol production in GCs. However, it was unclear whether pituitary gonadotropins induce accumulation of free fatty acids (FFAs) in the follicular fluid since follicle-stimulating hormone induces and luteinizing hormone inhibits estradiol production in the mammalian ovary.