- Cytosolic histone deacetylase-10 (HDAC10) specifically deacetylates the modified polyamine N8-acetylspermidine (N8-AcSpd). Although intracellular concentrations of N8-AcSpd are low, extracellular sources can be abundant, particularly in the colonic lumen. Extracellular polyamines, including those from the diet and microbiota, can support tumor growth both locally and at distant sites. However, the contribution of N8-AcSpd in this context is unknown. We hypothesized that HDAC10, by converting N8- AcSpd to spermidine, may provide a source of this growth-supporting polyamine in circumstances of reduced polyamine biosynthesis, such as in polyamine-targeting anticancer therapies.
- Polyamines are small polycationic alkylamines involved in many fundamental cellular processes, including proliferation, nucleic acid synthesis, apoptosis, and protection from oxidative damage. It has been proposed that in addition to these functions, elevated levels of polyamines promote longevity in various biological systems, including yeast, Drosophila, and murine models. A series of in vitro mechanistic studies by multiple investigators has led to the conclusion that addition of exogenous spermidine promotes longevity through autophagy induction; however, these experiments were confounded by the use of mammalian cell culture systems supplemented with fetal bovine serum.
- Treatment of patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is limited by a lack of effective molecular therapies targeting this disease. Recent studies have identified metabolic alterations in cancer cells that can be targeted to improve responses to standard-of-care chemotherapy regimens. Using MDA-MB-468 and SUM-159PT TNBC cells, along with LC-MS/MS and HPLC metabolomics profiling, we found here that exposure of TNBC cells to the cytotoxic chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and doxorubicin alter arginine and polyamine metabolites.
- Snyder–Robinson syndrome (SRS) is an X-linked intellectual disability syndrome caused by a loss-of-function mutation in the spermine synthase (SMS) gene. Primarily affecting males, the main manifestations of SRS include osteoporosis, hypotonic stature, seizures, cognitive impairment, and developmental delay. Because there is no cure for SRS, treatment plans focus on alleviating symptoms rather than targeting the underlying causes. Biochemically, the cells of individuals with SRS accumulate excess spermidine, whereas spermine levels are reduced.
- Polyamines (PAs) are indispensable polycations ubiquitous to all living cells. Among their many critical functions, PAs contribute to the oxidative balance of the cell. Beginning with studies by the Tabor laboratory in bacteria and yeast, the requirement for PAs as protectors against oxygen radical–mediated damage has been well established in many organisms, including mammals. However, PAs also serve as substrates for oxidation reactions that produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) both intra- and extracellularly.