- Acetylation is known to regulate the activity of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK1), a key enzyme in gluconeogenesis, by promoting the reverse reaction of the enzyme (converting phosphoenolpyruvate to oxaloacetate). It is also known that the histone acetyltransferase p300 can induce PCK1 acetylation in cells, but whether that is a direct or indirect function was not known. Here we initially set out to determine whether p300 can acetylate directly PCK1 in vitro. We report that p300 weakly acetylates PCK1, but surprisingly, using several techniques including protein crystallization, mass spectrometry, isothermal titration calorimetry, saturation-transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular docking, we found that PCK1 is also able to acetylate itself using acetyl-CoA independently of p300.
- Sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is a nuclear NAD+-dependent deacetylase of histone H3 that regulates genome stability and gene expression. However, nonhistone substrates and additional catalytic activities of SIRT6, including long-chain deacylation and mono-ADP-ribosylation of other proteins, have also been reported, but many of these noncanonical roles remain enigmatic. Genetic studies have revealed critical homeostatic cellular functions of SIRT6, underscoring the need to better understand which catalytic functions and molecular pathways are driving SIRT6-associated phenotypes.
- β-Cell mitochondria play a central role in coupling glucose metabolism with insulin secretion. Here, we identified a metabolic function of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1)/cyclin B1—the activation of mitochondrial respiratory complex I—that is active in quiescent adult β-cells and hyperactive in β-cells from obese (ob/ob) mice. In WT islets, respirometry revealed that 65% of complex I flux and 49% of state 3 respiration is sensitive to CDK1 inhibition. Islets from ob/ob mice expressed more cyclin B1 and exhibited a higher sensitivity to CDK1 blockade, which reduced complex I flux by 76% and state 3 respiration by 79%.
- Mammals and their gut microbial communities share extensive and tightly coordinated co-metabolism of dietary substrates. A large number of microbial metabolites have been detected in host circulation and tissues and, in many cases, are linked to host metabolic, developmental, and immunological states. The presence of these metabolites in host tissues intersects with regulation of the host's epigenetic machinery. Although it is established that the host's epigenetic machinery is sensitive to levels of endogenous metabolites, the roles for microbial metabolites in epigenetic regulation are just beginning to be elucidated.
- B cell malignancies comprise a diverse group of cancers that proliferate in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. SIRT3 (sirtuin 3) is the major deacetylase within the mitochondrial matrix that promotes aerobic metabolism and controls reactive oxygen species (ROS) by deacetylating and activating isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). There is controversy as to whether SIRT3 acts as an oncogene or a tumor suppressor, and here we investigated its role in B cell malignancies.