- Thioredoxin/glutathione reductase (TXNRD3) is a selenoprotein composed of thioredoxin reductase and glutaredoxin domains. This NADPH-dependent thiol oxidoreductase evolved through gene duplication within the Txnrd family, is expressed in the testes, and can reduce both thioredoxin and glutathione in vitro; however, the function of this enzyme remains unknown. To characterize the function of TXNRD3 in vivo, we generated a strain of mice bearing deletion of Txnrd3 gene. We show that these Txnrd3 knockout mice are viable and without discernable gross phenotypes, and also that TXNRD3 deficiency leads to fertility impairment in male mice.
- The chemical potentialities of metabolites far exceed metabolic requirements. The required potentialities are realized mostly through enzymatic catalysis. The rest are realized spontaneously through organic reactions that (i) occur wherever appropriate reactants come together, (ii) are so typical that many have proper names (e.g. Michael addition, Amadori rearrangement, and Pictet-Spengler reaction), and (iii) often have damaging consequences. There are many more causes of non-enzymatic damage to metabolites than reactive oxygen species and free radical processes (the “usual suspects”).
- Thioredoxin (Trx)-fold proteins are protagonists of numerous cellular pathways that are subject to thiol-based redox control. The best characterized regulator of thiols in proteins is Trx1 itself, which together with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) and peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprises a key redox regulatory system in mammalian cells. However, there are numerous other Trx-like proteins, whose functions and redox interactors are unknown. It is also unclear if the principles of Trx1-based redox control apply to these proteins.