Structure of a monomeric photosystem II core complex from a cyanobacterium acclimated to far-red light reveals the functions of chlorophylls d and fFar-red light (FRL) photoacclimation in cyanobacteria provides a selective growth advantage for some terrestrial cyanobacteria by expanding the range of photosynthetically active radiation to include far-red/near-infrared light (700–800 nm). During this photoacclimation process, photosystem II (PSII), the water:plastoquinone photooxidoreductase involved in oxygenic photosynthesis, is modified. The resulting FRL-PSII is comprised of FRL-specific core subunits and binds chlorophyll (Chl) d and Chl f molecules in place of several of the Chl a molecules found when cells are grown in visible light.
Structure of a photosystem I-ferredoxin complex from a marine cyanobacterium provides insights into far-red light photoacclimationFar-red light photoacclimation exhibited by some cyanobacteria allows these organisms to use the far-red region of the solar spectrum (700–800 nm) for photosynthesis. Part of this process includes the replacement of six photosystem I (PSI) subunits with isoforms that confer the binding of chlorophyll (Chl) f molecules that absorb far-red light (FRL). However, the exact sites at which Chl f molecules are bound are still challenging to determine. To aid in the identification of Chl f-binding sites, we solved the cryo-EM structure of PSI from far-red light-acclimated cells of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp.
Biosynthesis of the modified tetrapyrroles—the pigments of lifeModified tetrapyrroles are large macrocyclic compounds, consisting of diverse conjugation and metal chelation systems and imparting an array of colors to the biological structures that contain them. Tetrapyrroles represent some of the most complex small molecules synthesized by cells and are involved in many essential processes that are fundamental to life on Earth, including photosynthesis, respiration, and catalysis. These molecules are all derived from a common template through a series of enzyme-mediated transformations that alter the oxidation state of the macrocycle and also modify its size, its side-chain composition, and the nature of the centrally chelated metal ion.
A paralog of a bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis enzyme catalyzes the formation of 1,2-dihydrocarotenoids in green sulfur bacteriaChlorobaculum tepidum, a green sulfur bacterium, utilizes chlorobactene as its major carotenoid, and this organism also accumulates a reduced form of this monocyclic pigment, 1′,2′-dihydrochlorobactene. The protein catalyzing this reduction is the last unidentified enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways for all of the green sulfur bacterial pigments used for photosynthesis. The genome of C. tepidum contains two paralogous genes encoding members of the FixC family of flavoproteins: bchP, which has been shown to encode an enzyme of bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis; and bchO, for which a function has not been assigned.
BciD Is a Radical S-Adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) Enzyme That Completes Bacteriochlorophyllide e Biosynthesis by Oxidizing a Methyl Group into a Formyl Group at C-7Green bacteria are chlorophotorophs that synthesize bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) c, d, or e, which assemble into supramolecular, nanotubular structures in large light-harvesting structures called chlorosomes. The biosynthetic pathways of these chlorophylls are known except for one reaction. Null mutants of bciD, which encodes a putative radical S-adenosyl-l-methionine (SAM) protein, are unable to synthesize BChl e but accumulate BChl c; however, it is unknown whether BciD is sufficient to convert BChl c (or its precursor, bacteriochlorophyllide (BChlide) c) into BChl e (or BChlide e).
Biochemical Validation of the Glyoxylate Cycle in the Cyanobacterium Chlorogloeopsis fritschii Strain PCC 9212Cyanobacteria are important photoautotrophic bacteria with extensive but variable metabolic capacities. The existence of the glyoxylate cycle, a variant of the TCA cycle, is still poorly documented in cyanobacteria. Previous studies reported the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, the key enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle in some cyanobacteria, but other studies concluded that these enzymes are missing. In this study the genes encoding isocitrate lyase and malate synthase from Chlorogloeopsis fritschii PCC 9212 were identified, and the recombinant enzymes were biochemically characterized.