Pyoverdines are high affinity siderophores produced by a broad range of pseudomonads to enhance growth under iron deficiency. They are especially relevant for pathogenic and mutualistic strains that inhabit iron-limited environments. Pyoverdines are generated from non-ribosomally synthesized highly modified peptides. They all contain an aromatic chromophore that is formed in the periplasm by intramolecular cyclization steps. Although the cytoplasmic peptide synthesis and side-chain modifications are well characterized, the periplasmic maturation steps are far from understood.