Viral protein X reduces the incorporation of mutagenic noncanonical rNTPs during lentivirus reverse transcription in macrophagesUnlike activated CD4+ T cells, nondividing macrophages have an extremely small dNTP pool, which restricts HIV-1 reverse transcription. However, rNTPs are equally abundant in both of these cell types and reach much higher concentrations than dNTPs. The greater difference in concentration between dNTPs and rNTPs in macrophages results in frequent misincorporation of noncanonical rNTPs during HIV-1 reverse transcription. Here, we tested whether the highly abundant SAM domain– and HD domain–containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) deoxynucleoside triphosphorylase in macrophages is responsible for frequent rNTP incorporation during HIV-1 reverse transcription.
Interplay of ancestral non-primate lentiviruses with the virus-restricting SAMHD1 proteins of their hostsLentiviruses infect both dividing CD4+ T cells and nondividing myeloid cells, and the infected myeloid cells serve as long-living viral reservoirs. Host sterile alpha motif– and histidine-aspartate domain–containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) kinetically restricts reverse transcription of primate lentiviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), in nondividing myeloid cells. SAMHD1 enforces this restriction through its dNTP triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) activity that depletes cellular dNTPs.