The Pseudomonas aeruginosa homeostasis enzyme AlgL clears the periplasmic space of accumulated alginate during polymer biosynthesisPseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and a leading cause of chronic infection in the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. After colonization, P. aeruginosa often undergoes a phenotypic conversion to mucoidy, characterized by overproduction of the alginate exopolysaccharide. This conversion is correlated with poorer patient prognoses. The majority of genes required for alginate synthesis, including the alginate lyase, algL, are located in a single operon. Previous investigations of AlgL have resulted in several divergent hypotheses regarding the protein’s role in alginate production.
Structural basis for the inhibition of the Bacillus subtilis c-di-AMP cyclase CdaA by the phosphoglucomutase GlmMCyclic-di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is an important nucleotide signaling molecule that plays a key role in osmotic regulation in bacteria. c-di-AMP is produced from two molecules of ATP by proteins containing a diadenylate cyclase (DAC) domain. In Bacillus subtilis, the main c-di-AMP cyclase, CdaA, is a membrane-linked cyclase with an N-terminal transmembrane domain followed by the cytoplasmic DAC domain. As both high and low levels of c-di-AMP have a negative impact on bacterial growth, the cellular levels of this signaling nucleotide are tightly regulated.
Rediscovery of PF-3845 as a new chemical scaffold inhibiting phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase in Mycobacterium tuberculosisMycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains the deadliest pathogenic bacteria worldwide. The search for new antibiotics to treat drug-sensitive as well as drug-resistant tuberculosis has become a priority. The essential enzyme phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase (PheRS) is an antibacterial drug target because of the large differences between bacterial and human PheRS counterparts. In a high-throughput screening of 2148 bioactive compounds, PF-3845, which is a known inhibitor of human fatty acid amide hydrolase, was identified inhibiting Mtb PheRS at Ki ∼ 0.73 ± 0.06 μM.
The bacterial metalloprotease NleD selectively cleaves mitogen-activated protein kinases that have high flexibility in their activation loopMicrobial pathogens often target the host mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) network to suppress host immune responses. We previously identified a bacterial type III secretion system effector, termed NleD, a metalloprotease that inactivates MAPKs by specifically cleaving their activation loop. Here, we show that NleDs form a growing family of virulence factors harbored by human and plant pathogens as well as insect symbionts. These NleDs disable specifically Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) and p38s that are required for host immune response, whereas extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), which is essential for host cell viability, remains intact.
Lanthanide-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases require an essential aspartate residue for metal coordination and enzymatic functionThe lanthanide elements (Ln3+), those with atomic numbers 57–63 (excluding promethium, Pm3+), form a cofactor complex with pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) in bacterial XoxF methanol dehydrogenases (MDHs) and ExaF ethanol dehydrogenases (EDHs), expanding the range of biological elements and opening novel areas of metabolism and ecology. Other MDHs, known as MxaFIs, are related in sequence and structure to these proteins, yet they instead possess a Ca2+-PQQ cofactor. An important missing piece of the Ln3+ puzzle is defining what features distinguish enzymes that use Ln3+-PQQ cofactors from those that do not.
Mechanism underlying autoinducer recognition in the Vibrio cholerae DPO-VqmA quorum-sensing pathwayQuorum sensing is a bacterial communication process whereby bacteria produce, release, and detect extracellular signaling molecules called autoinducers to coordinate collective behaviors. In the pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the quorum-sensing autoinducer 3,5-dimethyl-pyrazin-2-ol (DPO) binds the receptor and transcription factor VqmA. The DPO-VqmA complex activates transcription of vqmR, encoding the VqmR small RNA, which represses genes required for biofilm formation and virulence factor production.
Molecular features of lipoprotein CD0873: A potential vaccine against the human pathogen Clostridioides difficileClostridioides difficile is the primary cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis, a healthcare-associated intestinal disease resulting in a significant fatality rate. Colonization of the gut is critical for C. difficile pathogenesis. The bacterial molecules essential for efficient colonization therefore offer great potential as vaccine candidates. Here we present findings demonstrating that the C. difficile immunogenic lipoprotein CD0873 plays a critical role in pathogen success in vivo.
Unraveling the sequence of cytosolic reactions in the export of GspB adhesin from Streptococcus gordoniiMany pathogenic bacteria, including Streptococcus gordonii, possess a pathway for the cellular export of a single serine-rich-repeat protein that mediates the adhesion of bacteria to host cells and the extracellular matrix. This adhesin protein is O-glycosylated by several cytosolic glycosyltransferases and requires three accessory Sec proteins (Asp1–3) for export, but how the adhesin protein is processed for export is not well understood. Here, we report that the S. gordonii adhesin GspB is sequentially O-glycosylated by three enzymes (GtfA/B, Nss, and Gly) that attach N-acetylglucosamine and glucose to Ser/Thr residues.
The hydrogen peroxide hypersensitivity of OxyR2 in Vibrio vulnificus depends on conformational constraintsMost Gram-negative bacteria respond to excessive levels of H2O2 using the peroxide-sensing transcriptional regulator OxyR, which can induce the expression of antioxidant genes to restore normality. Vibrio vulnificus has two distinct OxyRs (OxyR1 and OxyR2), which are sensitive to different levels of H2O2 and induce expression of two different peroxidases, Prx1 and Prx2. Although OxyR1 has both high sequence similarity and H2O2 sensitivity comparable with that of other OxyR proteins, OxyR2 exhibits limited sequence similarity and is more sensitive to H2O2.
A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces orisBackground: Gram-positive bacteria secrete pilins through the Sec translocon in unfolded states.Results: Disruption of pilus disulfide bonds or genetic disruption of oxidoreductase-encoding genes mdbA and vkor abrogates pilus assembly in Actinomyces oris.Conclusion: MdbA and VKOR constitute a disulfide bond-forming machine in A. oris.Significance: Oxidative protein folding may be common in Actinobacteria and an attractive target for antimicrobials.