- Clostridium perfringens is a leading cause of food-poisoning and causes avian necrotic enteritis, posing a significant problem to both the poultry industry and human health. No effective vaccine against C. perfringens is currently available. Using an antiserum screen of mutants generated from a C. perfringens transposon-mutant library, here we identified an immunoreactive antigen that was lost in a putative glycosyltransferase mutant, suggesting that this antigen is likely a glycoconjugate. Following injection of formalin-fixed whole cells of C.
- Members of the Acinetobacter baumannii-calcoaceticus complex are nosocomial pathogens frequently causing multidrug-resistant infections that are increasing at alarming rates. A. baumannii has become the Gram-negative bacterium with the highest rate of multidrug resistance. As such, it is categorized by the World Health Organization as a critical priority for the research and development of new antimicrobial therapies. The zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidase CpaA is a predominant substrate of the type II secretion system (T2SS).
- The type VI secretion system (T6SS) delivers toxic effectors between Gram-negative bacteria. Most antibacterial T6SS effectors are peptidoglycanases, nucleases, or lipases. In the current work, Tang et al. structurally and functionally characterize a novel family of NAD(P)+-hydrolyzing effectors (NADases), thus expanding the documented types of T6SS substrates. Bioinformatic identification of NADase family members putatively secreted by the bacteriolytic type VII secretion system (T7SS) of Gram-positive bacteria further points to NADases as a diverse and important class of effectors.
- Acinetobacter baumannii, Acinetobacter nosocomialis, and Acinetobacter pittii are a frequent cause of multidrug-resistant, healthcare-associated infections. Our previous work demonstrated that A. nosocomialis M2 possesses a functional type II secretion system (T2SS) that is required for full virulence. Further, we identified the metallo-endopeptidase CpaA, which has been shown previously to cleave human Factor V and deregulate blood coagulation, as the most abundant type II secreted effector protein.
- Pathogenic Acinetobacter species, including Acinetobacter baumannii and Acinetobacter nosocomialis, are opportunistic human pathogens of increasing relevance worldwide. Although their mechanisms of drug resistance are well studied, the virulence factors that govern Acinetobacter pathogenesis are incompletely characterized. Here we define the complete secretome of A. nosocomialis strain M2 in minimal medium and demonstrate that pathogenic Acinetobacter species produce both a functional type I secretion system (T1SS) and a contact-dependent inhibition (CDI) system.
- Acinetobacter baumannii is a Gram-negative coccobacillus found primarily in hospital settings that has recently emerged as a source of hospital-acquired infections. A. baumannii expresses a variety of virulence factors, including type IV pili, bacterial extracellular appendages often essential for attachment to host cells. Here, we report the high resolution structures of the major pilin subunit, PilA, from three Acinetobacter strains, demonstrating that A. baumannii subsets produce morphologically distinct type IV pilin glycoproteins.