Molecular Bases of Disease
- Manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity resembles Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms underpinning its effects remain unknown. Mn dysregulates astrocytic glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, and dopaminergic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our previous in vitro studies have shown that Mn repressed GLAST and GLT-1 via activation of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Here, we investigated if in vivo astrocytic YY1 deletion mitigates Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, attenuating Mn-induced reduction in GLAST/GLT-1 expression in murine substantia nigra (SN).
- Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient required for the normal development of many organs, including the brain. Although its roles as a cofactor in several enzymes and in maintaining optimal physiology are well-known, the overall biological functions of Mn are rather poorly understood. Alterations in body Mn status are associated with altered neuronal physiology and cognition in humans, and either overexposure or (more rarely) insufficiency can cause neurological dysfunction. The resultant balancing act can be viewed as a hormetic U-shaped relationship for biological Mn status and optimal brain health, with changes in the brain leading to physiological effects throughout the body and vice versa.
- Dopaminergic functions are important for various biological activities, and their impairment leads to neurodegeneration, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure causes the neurological disorder manganism, presenting symptoms similar to those of PD. Emerging evidence has linked the transcription factor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) to PD and also Alzheimer's disease. But REST's role in dopaminergic neurons is unclear. Here, we investigated whether REST protects dopaminergic neurons against Mn-induced toxicity and enhances expression of the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).