Molecular Bases of Disease
- Manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity resembles Parkinson's disease (PD), but the mechanisms underpinning its effects remain unknown. Mn dysregulates astrocytic glutamate transporters, GLT-1 and GLAST, and dopaminergic function, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). Our previous in vitro studies have shown that Mn repressed GLAST and GLT-1 via activation of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1). Here, we investigated if in vivo astrocytic YY1 deletion mitigates Mn-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, attenuating Mn-induced reduction in GLAST/GLT-1 expression in murine substantia nigra (SN).
- Manganese (Mn) is an essential micronutrient required for the normal development of many organs, including the brain. Although its roles as a cofactor in several enzymes and in maintaining optimal physiology are well-known, the overall biological functions of Mn are rather poorly understood. Alterations in body Mn status are associated with altered neuronal physiology and cognition in humans, and either overexposure or (more rarely) insufficiency can cause neurological dysfunction. The resultant balancing act can be viewed as a hormetic U-shaped relationship for biological Mn status and optimal brain health, with changes in the brain leading to physiological effects throughout the body and vice versa.
- Dopaminergic functions are important for various biological activities, and their impairment leads to neurodegeneration, a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic manganese (Mn) exposure causes the neurological disorder manganism, presenting symptoms similar to those of PD. Emerging evidence has linked the transcription factor RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) to PD and also Alzheimer's disease. But REST's role in dopaminergic neurons is unclear. Here, we investigated whether REST protects dopaminergic neurons against Mn-induced toxicity and enhances expression of the dopamine-synthesizing enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).
- SLC30A10 and SLC39A14 are manganese efflux and influx transporters, respectively. Loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding either transporter induce hereditary manganese toxicity. Patients have elevated manganese in the blood and brain and develop neurotoxicity. Liver manganese is increased in patients lacking SLC30A10 but not SLC39A14. These organ-specific changes in manganese were recently recapitulated in knockout mice. Surprisingly, Slc30a10 knockouts also had elevated thyroid manganese and developed hypothyroidism.
- Manganese is an essential metal that becomes toxic at elevated levels. Loss-of-function mutations in SLC30A10, a cell-surface-localized manganese efflux transporter, cause a heritable manganese metabolism disorder resulting in elevated manganese levels and parkinsonian-like movement deficits. The underlying disease mechanisms are unclear; therefore, treatment is challenging. To understand the consequences of loss of SLC30A10 function at the organism level, we generated Slc30a10 knock-out mice. During early development, knock-outs were indistinguishable from controls.
- Background: The mechanism for transcriptional regulation of EAAT1 remains to be elucidated.Results: EGF-activated NF-κB is a positive regulator of EAAT1, whereas manganese-activated YY1, with HDACs acting as co-repressors, is a negative regulator.Conclusion: NF-κB and YY1 are two critical transcriptional regulators of EAAT1.Significance: Identifying the molecular targets of EAAT1 regulation is crucial to develop therapeutics against neurological disorders associated with impairment of EAAT1.