Molecular Bases of Disease
Copper stabilizes antiparallel β-sheet fibrils of the amyloid β40 (Aβ40)-Iowa variantCerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is a vascular disorder that primarily involves deposition of the 40-residue–long β-amyloid peptide (Aβ40) in and along small blood vessels of the brain. CAA is often associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by amyloid plaques in the brain parenchyma enriched in the Aβ42 peptide. Several recent studies have suggested a structural origin that underlies the differences between the vascular amyloid deposits in CAA and the parenchymal plaques in AD.
Influence of the familial Alzheimer's disease–associated T43I mutation on the transmembrane structure and γ-secretase processing of the C99 peptideExtracellular deposition of β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Upon β-secretase–mediated cleavage of the β C-terminal fragment (β-CTF) from the Aβ precursor protein, the γ-secretase complex produces the Aβ peptides associated with AD. The familial T43I mutation within the transmembrane domain of the β-CTF (also referred to as C99) increases the ratio between the Aβ42 and Aβ40 peptides largely due to a decrease in Aβ40 formation. Aβ42 is the principal component of amyloid deposits within the brain parenchyma, and an increase in the Aβ42/Aβ40 ratio is correlated with early-onset AD.
Methionine oxidation in α-synuclein inhibits its propensity for ordered secondary structureα-Synuclein (AS) is an intrinsically disordered protein highly expressed in dopaminergic neurons. Its amyloid aggregates are the major component of Lewy bodies, a hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD). AS is particularly exposed to oxidation of its methionine residues, both in vivo and in vitro. Oxidative stress has been implicated in PD and oxidized α-synuclein has been shown to assemble into soluble, toxic oligomers, rather than amyloid fibrils. However, the structural effects of methionine oxidation are still poorly understood.
Sialylation Controls Prion Fate in VivoPrions or PrPSc are proteinaceous infectious agents that consist of misfolded, self-replicating states of a sialoglycoprotein called the prion protein or PrPC. The current work tests a new hypothesis that sialylation determines the fate of prions in an organism. To begin, we produced control PrPSc from PrPC using protein misfolding cyclic amplification with beads (PMCAb), and also generated PrPSc with reduced sialylation levels using the same method but with partially desialylated PrPC as a substrate (dsPMCAb).
Co-fibrillogenesis of Wild-type and D76N β2-Microglobulin: THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF FIBRILLAR SEEDSThe amyloidogenic variant of β2-microglobulin, D76N, can readily convert into genuine fibrils under physiological conditions and primes in vitro the fibrillogenesis of the wild-type β2-microglobulin. By Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, we have demonstrated that the amyloid transformation of wild-type β2-microglobulin can be induced by the variant only after its complete fibrillar conversion. Our current findings are consistent with preliminary data in which we have shown a seeding effect of fibrils formed from D76N or the natural truncated form of β2-microglobulin lacking the first six N-terminal residues.