Molecular Bases of Disease
MicroRNA-98 reduces nerve growth factor expression in nicotine-induced airway remodelingEvolving evidence suggests that nicotine may contribute to impaired asthma control by stimulating expression of nerve growth factor (NGF), a neurotrophin associated with airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness. We explored the hypothesis that nicotine increases NGF by reducing lung fibroblast (LF) microRNA-98 (miR-98) and PPARγ levels, thus promoting airway remodeling. Levels of NGF, miR-98, PPARγ, fibronectin 1 (FN1), endothelin-1 (EDN1, herein referred to as ET-1), and collagen (COL1A1 and COL3A1) were measured in human LFs isolated from smoking donors, in mouse primary LFs exposed to nicotine (50 μg/ml), and in whole lung homogenates from mice chronically exposed to nicotine (100 μg/ml) in the drinking water.
Heat shock protein 70 is a positive regulator of airway inflammation and goblet cell hyperplasia in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammationHeat shock proteins (Hsps) are highly conserved molecular chaperones that are ubiquitously expressed in all species to aid the solubilization of misfolded proteins, protein degradation, and transport. Elevated levels of Hsp70 have been found in the sputum, serum, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of asthma patients and are known to correlate with disease severity. However, the function of Hsp70 in allergic airway inflammation has remained largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the role of Hsp70 in airway inflammation and remodeling using a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation.
TNF-stimulated gene 6 promotes formation of hyaluronan–inter-α-inhibitor heavy chain complexes necessary for ozone-induced airway hyperresponsivenessExposure to pollutants, such as ozone, exacerbates airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness (AHR). TNF-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is required to transfer inter-α-inhibitor heavy chains (HC) to hyaluronan (HA), facilitating HA receptor binding. TSG-6 is necessary for AHR in allergic asthma, because it facilitates the development of a pathological HA–HC matrix. However, the role of TSG-6 in acute airway inflammation is not well understood. Here, we hypothesized that TSG-6 is essential for the development of HA- and ozone-induced AHR.
Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and AsthmaTransient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash.
Der f 34, a Novel Major House Dust Mite Allergen Belonging to a Highly Conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 Family of Imine DeaminasesThe high prevalence of house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a growing health problem worldwide, and the characterization of clinically important HDM allergens is a prerequisite for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Here, we report a novel HDM allergen that belongs structurally to the highly conserved Rid/YjgF/YER057c/UK114 family (Rid family) with imine deaminase activity. Isolated HDM cDNA, named der f 34, encodes 128 amino acids homologous to Rid-like proteins. This new protein belongs to the Rid family and has seven conserved residues involved in enamine/imine deaminase activity.
Leptin Enhances TH2 and ILC2 Responses in Allergic Airway DiseaseAllergic asthma and obesity are the leading health problems in the world. Many studies have shown that obesity is a risk factor of development of asthma. However, the underlying mechanism has not been well established. In this study, we demonstrate that leptin, an adipokine elevated in obese individuals, promoted proliferation and survival of pro-allergic type 2 helper T cells and group 2 innate lymphoid cells and production of type 2 cytokines, which together contribute to allergic responses. Leptin activates mTORC1, MAPK, and STAT3 pathways in TH2 cells.
Eosinophil Peroxidase Catalyzed Protein Carbamylation Participates in AsthmaThe biochemical mechanisms through which eosinophils contribute to asthma pathogenesis are unclear. Here we show eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), an abundant granule protein released by activated eosinophils, contributes to characteristic asthma-related phenotypes through oxidative posttranslational modification (PTM) of proteins in asthmatic airways through a process called carbamylation. Using a combination of studies we now show EPO uses plasma levels of the pseudohalide thiocyanate (SCN−) as substrate to catalyze protein carbamylation, as monitored by PTM of protein lysine residues into Nϵ-carbamyllysine (homocitrulline), and contributes to the pathophysiological sequelae of eosinophil activation.
Epitope Mapping of Rhi o 1 and Generation of a Hypoallergenic Variant: A CANDIDATE MOLECULE FOR FUNGAL ALLERGY VACCINESEfficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy is often severely impaired by detrimental IgE-mediated side effects of native allergen during vaccination. Here, we present the molecular determinants for IgE recognition of Rhi o 1 and eventually converting the allergen into a hypoallergenic immunogen to restrain health hazards during desensitization. Rhi o 1 is a respiratory fungal allergen. Despite having cross-reactivity with cockroach allergen, we observed that non-cross-reactive epitope predominantly determined IgE binding to Rhi o 1.
Antigenic Determinants of the Bilobal Cockroach Allergen Bla g 2Bla g 2 is a major indoor cockroach allergen associated with the development of asthma. Antigenic determinants on Bla g 2 were analyzed by mutagenesis based on the structure of the allergen alone and in complex with monoclonal antibodies that interfere with IgE antibody binding. The structural analysis revealed mechanisms of allergen-antibody recognition through cation-π interactions. Single and multiple Bla g 2 mutants were expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified. The triple mutant K132A/K251A/F162Y showed an ∼100-fold reduced capacity to bind IgE, while preserving the native molecular fold, as proven by x-ray crystallography.
Basophil-associated OX40 Ligand Participates in the Initiation of Th2 Responses during Airway InflammationBackground:Basophils play a great role in the induction of Th2 cell responses in different disease contexts.Results:Basophils highly expressed OX40 ligand (OX40L) after activation. Adoptive transfer of activated basophils triggered a robust Th2 response and airway inflammation.Conclusion:Basophils primed Th2 responses via OX40-OX40L interaction in asthma.Significance:OX40L on basophils may be a novel therapeutic target in asthma.