Molecular Bases of Disease
Long noncoding RNA SNHG5 promotes podocyte injury via the microRNA-26a-5p/TRPC6 pathway in diabetic nephropathyPodocyte injury is a characteristic pathological hallmark of diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the exact mechanism of podocyte injury in DN is incompletely understood. This study was conducted using db/db mice and immortalized mouse podocytes. High-throughput sequencing was used to identify the differentially expressed long noncoding RNAs in kidney of db/db mice. The lentiviral shRNA directed against long noncoding RNA small nucleolar RNA host gene 5 (SNHG5) or microRNA-26a-5p (miR-26a-5p) agomir was used to treat db/db mice to regulate the SNHG5/miR-26a-5p pathway.
TFPI2 suppresses the interaction of TGF-β2 pathway regulators to promote endothelial–mesenchymal transition in diabetic nephropathyEndothelial–mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is an important source of myofibroblasts, but also contributes to the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). By several differential gene expression analyses from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, the tissue factor pathway inhibitor 2 (TFPI2) gene, known as a tumor suppressor, was shown to be dysregulated in DN; however, the potential role and regulatory mechanism of TFPI2 in DN are unclear. Here, we found abnormal upregulation of TFPI2 in the renal cortex of diabetic mice, accompanied by impaired renal function.
Cardio- and reno-protective effects of dipeptidyl peptidase III in diabetic miceDiabetes mellitus (DM) causes injury to tissues and organs, including to the heart and kidney, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. Thus, novel potential therapeutics are continuously required to minimize DM-related organ damage. We have previously shown that dipeptidyl peptidase III (DPPIII) has beneficial roles in a hypertensive mouse model, but it is unknown whether DPPIII has any effects on DM. In this study, we found that intravenous administration of recombinant DPPIII in diabetic db/db mice for 8 weeks suppressed the DM-induced cardiac diastolic dysfunctions and renal injury without alteration of the blood glucose level.
Proteolytic cleavage of Podocin by Matriptase exacerbates podocyte injuryPodocyte injury is a critical step toward the progression of renal disease and is often associated with a loss of slit diaphragm proteins, including Podocin. Although there is a possibility that the extracellular domain of these slit diaphragm proteins can be a target for a pathological proteolysis, the precise mechanism driving the phenomenon remains unknown. Here we show that Matriptase, a membrane-anchored protein, was activated at podocytes in CKD patients and mice, whereas Matriptase inhibitors slowed the progression of mouse kidney disease.
TGFβ acts through PDGFRβ to activate mTORC1 via the Akt/PRAS40 axis and causes glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein expressionInteraction of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-induced canonical signaling with the noncanonical kinase cascades regulates glomerular hypertrophy and matrix protein deposition, which are early features of glomerulosclerosis. However, the specific target downstream of the TGFβ receptor involved in the noncanonical signaling is unknown. Here, we show that TGFβ increased the catalytic loop phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ), a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed abundantly in glomerular mesangial cells.
Growth hormone induces Notch1 signaling in podocytes and contributes to proteinuria in diabetic nephropathyGrowth hormone (GH) plays a significant role in normal renal function and overactive GH signaling has been implicated in proteinuria in diabetes and acromegaly. Previous results have shown that the glomerular podocytes, which play an essential role in renal filtration, express the GH receptor, suggesting the direct action of GH on these cells. However, the exact mechanism and the downstream pathways by which excess GH leads to diabetic nephropathy is not established. In the present article, using immortalized human podocytes in vitro and a mouse model in vivo, we show that excess GH activates Notch1 signaling in a γ-secretase–dependent manner.
Dysregulation of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation in transforming growth factor-β1–induced gene expression in mesangial cells and diabetic kidneyTransforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β)-induced fibrotic and inflammatory genes in renal mesangial cells (MCs) play important roles in glomerular dysfunction associated with diabetic nephropathy (DN). TGF-β regulates gene expression in MCs by altering key chromatin histone modifications at target gene promoters. However, the role of the repressive histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) modification is unclear. Here we show that TGF-β reduces H3K27me3 at the Ctgf, Serpine1, and Ccl2 gene promoters in rat MCs (RMCs) and reciprocally up-regulates the expression of these pro-fibrotic and inflammatory genes.
Deacetylation of S6 kinase promotes high glucose–induced glomerular mesangial cell hypertrophy and matrix protein accumulationS6 kinase acts as a driver for renal hypertrophy and matrix accumulation, two key pathologic signatures of diabetic nephropathy. As a post-translational modification, S6 kinase undergoes acetylation at the C terminus. The role of this acetylation to regulate kidney glomerular cell hypertrophy and matrix expansion is not known. In mesangial cells, high glucose decreased the acetylation and enhanced phosphorylation of S6 kinase and its substrates rps6 and eEF2 kinase that lead to dephosphorylation of eEF2.
Cell surface expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) mediates diabetic nephropathyThe 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) is a well-established endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident chaperone that maintains protein homeostasis and regulates the unfolded protein response. Under conditions of ER stress, GRP78 is also expressed at the cell surface and implicated in tumorigenesis, immunity, and cellular signaling events. The role of cell surface–associated GRP78 (csGRP78) in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy has not yet been defined. Here we explored the role of csGRP78 in regulating high glucose (HG)–induced profibrotic AKT Ser/Thr kinase (AKT) signaling and up-regulation of extracellular matrix proteins.
SGLT2 Protein Expression Is Increased in Human Diabetic Nephropathy: SGLT2 PROTEIN INHIBITION DECREASES RENAL LIPID ACCUMULATION, INFLAMMATION, AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEPHROPATHY IN DIABETIC MICEThere is very limited human renal sodium gradient-dependent glucose transporter protein (SGLT2) mRNA and protein expression data reported in the literature. The first aim of this study was to determine SGLT2 mRNA and protein levels in human and animal models of diabetic nephropathy. We have found that the expression of SGLT2 mRNA and protein is increased in renal biopsies from human subjects with diabetic nephropathy. This is in contrast to db-db mice that had no changes in renal SGLT2 protein expression.
Absence of miR-146a in Podocytes Increases Risk of Diabetic Glomerulopathy via Up-regulation of ErbB4 and Notch-1Podocyte injury is an early event in diabetic kidney disease and is a hallmark of glomerulopathy. MicroRNA-146a (miR-146a) is highly expressed in many cell types under homeostatic conditions, and plays an important anti-inflammatory role in myeloid cells. However, its role in podocytes is unclear. Here, we show that miR-146a expression levels decrease in the glomeruli of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), which correlates with increased albuminuria and glomerular damage. miR-146a levels are also significantly reduced in the glomeruli of albuminuric BTBR ob/ob mice, indicating its significant role in maintaining podocyte health.
myo-Inositol Oxygenase Overexpression Accentuates Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species and Exacerbates Cellular Injury following High Glucose Ambience: A NEW MECHANISM RELEVANT TO THE PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHYDiabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by perturbations in metabolic/cellular signaling pathways with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are regarded as a common denominator of various pathways, and they inflict injury on renal glomerular cells. Recent studies indicate that tubular pathobiology also plays a role in the progression of DN. However, the mechanism(s) for how high (25 mm) glucose (HG) ambience induces tubular damage remains enigmatic. myo-Inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is a tubular enzyme that catabolizes myo-inositol to d-glucuronate via the glucuronate-xylulose (G-X) pathway.
Transcriptional and Translational Modulation of myo-Inositol Oxygenase (Miox) by Fatty Acids: IMPLICATIONS IN RENAL TUBULAR INJURY INDUCED IN OBESITY AND DIABETESThe kidney is one of the target organs for various metabolic diseases, including diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Most of the metabolic studies underscore glomerular pathobiology, although the tubulo-interstitial compartment has been underemphasized. This study highlights mechanisms concerning the pathobiology of tubular injury in the context of myo-inositol oxygenase (Miox), a tubular enzyme. The kidneys of mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) had increased Miox expression and activity, and the latter was related to phosphorylation of serine/threonine residues.
High Glucose Up-regulates ADAM17 through HIF-1α in Mesangial CellsBackground: ADAM17 is an important promoter of fibrosis in diabetic kidney disease.Results: ADAM17 is transcriptionally up-regulated by glucose through HIF-1α in kidney mesangial cells, associated with enhanced enzymatic activity.Conclusion: ADAM17 induces its own up-regulation, thereby augmenting its activity, in response to glucose.Significance: These studies provide a strong foundation for further evaluation of the role of ADAM17 in the profibrotic response of kidney cells to high glucose.