Molecular Bases of Disease
Hepatocyte expression of the micropeptide adropin regulates the liver fasting response and is enhanced by caloric restrictionThe micropeptide adropin encoded by the clock-controlled energy homeostasis–associated gene is implicated in the regulation of glucose metabolism. However, its links to rhythms of nutrient intake, energy balance, and metabolic control remain poorly defined. Using surveys of Gene Expression Omnibus data sets, we confirm that fasting suppresses liver adropin expression in lean C57BL/6J (B6) mice. However, circadian rhythm data are inconsistent. In lean mice, caloric restriction (CR) induces bouts of compulsive binge feeding separated by prolonged fasting intervals, increasing NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 signaling important for glucose and lipid metabolism regulation.
The magnesium transporter NIPAL1 is a pancreatic islet–expressed protein that conditionally impacts insulin secretionType 2 diabetes is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and peripheral insulin resistance. Among individuals with type 2 diabetes, ∼30% exhibit hypomagnesemia. Hypomagnesemia has been linked to insulin resistance through reduced tyrosine kinase activity of the insulin receptor; however, its impact on pancreatic β-cell function is unknown. In this study, through analysis of several single-cell RNA-sequencing data sets in tandem with quantitative PCR validation in both murine and human islets, we identified NIPAL1 (NIPA-like domain containing 1), encoding a magnesium influx transporter, as an islet-enriched gene.
A fluorescent timer reporter enables sorting of insulin secretory granules by ageWithin the pancreatic β-cells, insulin secretory granules (SGs) exist in functionally distinct pools, displaying variations in motility as well as docking and fusion capability. Current therapies that increase insulin secretion do not consider the existence of these distinct SG pools. Accordingly, these approaches are effective only for a short period, with a worsening of glycemia associated with continued decline in β-cell function. Insulin granule age is underappreciated as a determinant for why an insulin granule is selected for secretion and may explain why newly synthesized insulin is preferentially secreted from β-cells.
Down-regulation of the islet-specific zinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) protects human insulinoma cells against inflammatory stressZinc transporter-8 (ZnT8) primarily functions as a zinc-sequestrating transporter in the insulin-secretory granules (ISGs) of pancreatic β-cells. Loss-of-function mutations in ZnT8 are associated with protection against type-2 diabetes (T2D), but the protective mechanism is unclear. Here, we developed an in-cell ZnT8 assay to track endogenous ZnT8 responses to metabolic and inflammatory stresses applied to human insulinoma EndoC-βH1 cells. Unexpectedly, high glucose and free fatty acids did not alter cellular ZnT8 levels, but proinflammatory cytokines acutely, reversibly, and gradually down-regulated ZnT8.
The orphan nuclear receptor Nor1/Nr4a3 is a negative regulator of β-cell massThe Nr4a subfamily of nuclear receptor comprises three members in mammalian cells: Nur77/Nr4a1, Nurr1/Nr4a2, and Nor1/Nr4a3. Nr4a proteins play key roles in the regulation of glucose homeostasis in peripheral metabolic tissues. However, their biological functions in β-cells remain relatively uncharacterized. Here we sought to investigate the potential role of Nor1 in the regulation of β-cell mass and, in particular, β-cell survival/apoptosis. We used histological analysis to examine the consequences of genetic deletion of either Nur77 and Nor1 on β-cell mass, investigated the expression patterns of Nr4as in human islets and INS cells and performed gain- and loss-of-function experiments to further characterize the role of Nor1 in β-cell apoptosis.
Large-scale analysis of variation in the insulin-like growth factor family in humans reveals rare disease links and common polymorphismsThe insulin-like growth factors IGF1 and IGF2 are closely related proteins that are essential for normal growth and development in humans and other species and play critical roles in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. IGF actions are mediated by transmembrane receptors and modulated by IGF-binding proteins. The importance of IGF actions in human physiology is strengthened by the rarity of inactivating mutations in their genes and by the devastating impact caused by such mutations on normal development and somatic growth.
The transcription factor Pax6 is required for pancreatic β cell identity, glucose-regulated ATP synthesis, and Ca2+ dynamics in adult miceHeterozygous mutations in the human paired box gene PAX6 lead to impaired glucose tolerance. Although embryonic deletion of the Pax6 gene in mice leads to loss of most pancreatic islet cell types, the functional consequences of Pax6 loss in adults are poorly defined. Here we developed a mouse line in which Pax6 was selectively inactivated in β cells by crossing animals with floxed Pax6 alleles to mice expressing the inducible Pdx1CreERT transgene. Pax6 deficiency, achieved by tamoxifen injection, caused progressive hyperglycemia.
Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ Activation Augments the β-Cell Unfolded Protein Response and Rescues Early Glycemic Deterioration and β Cell Death in Non-obese Diabetic MiceType 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder that is characterized by a failure of the unfolded protein response in islet β cells with subsequent endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular death. Thiazolidinediones are insulin sensitizers that activate the nuclear receptor PPAR-γ and have been shown to partially ameliorate autoimmune type 1 diabetes in humans and non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. We hypothesized that thiazolidinediones reduce β cell stress and death independently of insulin sensitivity.
Protein Kinase Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP4K4) Promotes Obesity-induced HyperinsulinemiaPrevious studies revealed a paradox whereby mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (Map4k4) acted as a negative regulator of insulin sensitivity in chronically obese mice, yet systemic deletion of Map4k4 did not improve glucose tolerance. Here, we report markedly reduced glucose-responsive plasma insulin and C-peptide levels in whole body Map4k4-depleted mice (M4K4 iKO) as well as an impaired first phase of insulin secretion from islets derived from M4K4 iKO mice ex vivo. After long-term high fat diet (HFD), M4K4 iKO mice pancreata also displayed reduced β cell mass, fewer proliferating β cells and reduced islet-specific gene mRNA expression compared with controls, although insulin content was normal.
Diabetes Impairs Wnt3 Protein-induced Neurogenesis in Olfactory Bulbs via Glutamate Transporter 1 InhibitionDiabetes is associated with impaired cognitive function. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats exhibit a loss of neurogenesis and deficits in behavioral tasks involving spatial learning and memory; thus, impaired adult hippocampal neurogenesis may contribute to diabetes-associated cognitive deficits. Recent studies have demonstrated that adult neurogenesis generally occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus, the subventricular zone, and the olfactory bulbs (OB) and is defective in patients with diabetes.
Discrepancy in Insulin Regulation between Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) Platelets and PlacentaEarlier findings have identified the requirement of insulin signaling on maturation and the translocation of serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SERT to the plasma membrane of the trophoblast in placenta. Because of the defect on insulin receptor (IR) in the trophoblast of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated placenta, SERT is found entrapped in the cytoplasm of the GDM-trophoblast. SERT is encoded by the same gene expressed in trophoblast and platelets. Additionally, alteration in plasma 5-HT levels and the 5-HT uptake rates are associated with the aggregation rates of platelets.
Functional Domains of Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Modulate INS-VNTR Transcription in Human Thymic Epithelial CellsINS-VNTR (insulin-variable number of tandem repeats) and AIRE (autoimmune regulator) have been associated with the modulation of insulin gene expression in thymus, which is essential to induce either insulin tolerance or the development of insulin autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes. We sought to analyze whether each functional domain of AIRE is critical for the activation of INS-VNTR in human thymic epithelial cells. Twelve missense or nonsense mutations in AIRE and two chimeric AIRE constructs were generated.
Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 (SOCS-3) Induces Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) Expression in Hepatic HepG2 Cell LineThe suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins are negative regulators of the JAK/STAT pathway activated by proinflammatory cytokines, including the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). SOCS3 is also implicated in hypertriglyceridemia associated to insulin resistance. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) levels are frequently found to be positively correlated to insulin resistance and plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides concentrations. The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of TNF-α and JAK/STAT pathway on de novo lipogenesis and PCSK9 expression in HepG2 cells.
Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 ProteinDiabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription.
Nicotinic Acid Adenine Dinucleotide Phosphate (NAADP) and Endolysosomal Two-pore Channels Modulate Membrane Excitability and Stimulus-Secretion Coupling in Mouse Pancreatic β CellsBackground: TPCs are regulated by NAADP and other factors.Results: NAADP-induced Ca2+ release from acidic stores evokes depolarizing currents in pancreatic β cells. Inhibition of NAADP signaling or TPC knock out attenuates Ca2+ signaling and insulin secretion.Conclusion: NAADP-evoked Ca2+ release enhances β cell excitability and insulin secretion in response to glucose or sulfonylureas.Significance: NAADP signaling pathways offer novel therapeutic targets for diabetes treatment.
Early and Long-term Undernutrition in Female Rats Exacerbates the Metabolic Risk Associated with Nutritional RehabilitationBackground Obesogenic effects of diets provided after undernutrition are controversial. Results Undernourished rats transferred to high-lipid diets show hyperphagia, dyslipidemia, ectopic lipids, adipose inflammation, and signs of browning. Conclusion Chronic food restriction increases metabolic risks of subsequent nutritional recovery, without inducing obesity. Significance The present study may help to understand some deleterious consequences undergone by undernourished people submitted to nutritional rehabilitation.
Hyperinsulinemia Enhances Hepatic Expression of the Fatty Acid Transporter Cd36 and Provokes Hepatosteatosis and Hepatic Insulin ResistanceBackground Enhanced hepatic expression of the fatty acid transporter Cd36 correlates with liver fat accumulation, hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia. Results Insulin increases hepatic Cd36 expression in a Pparγ-dependent manner. Conclusion Hyperinsulinemia stimulates hepatic Cd36 expression, which correlates with the development of hepatosteatosis, hepatic insulin resistance, and dysglycemia. Significance Hyperinsulinemia contributes to the development of hepatosteatosis and insulin resistance.