Molecular Bases of Disease
- Aberrant regulation of myocardial force production represents an early biomechanical defect associated with sarcomeric cardiomyopathies, but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we evaluated the pathogenicity of a previously unreported sarcomeric gene variant identified in a pediatric patient with sporadic dilated cardiomyopathy, and we determined a molecular mechanism. Trio whole-exome sequencing revealed a de novo missense variant in TNNC1 that encodes a p.I4M substitution in the N-terminal helix of cardiac troponin C (cTnC).
- Dysfunctional p53 formation and activity can result from aberrant expression and subcellular localization of distinct p53 isoforms or aggregates. Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a cancer type in which p53 status is correlated with prognosis, and TP53 mutations are a frequent genetic modification. Here we aimed to evaluate the expression patterns of different p53 isoforms and their contributions to the formation and subcellular localization of p53 amyloid aggregates in both EC and endometrial nontumor cell lines.
- p53 mutants can form amyloid-like structures that accumulate in cells. p53 reactivation with induction of massive apoptosis-1 (PRIMA-1) and its primary active metabolite, 2-methylene-3-quinuclidinone (MQ), can restore unfolded p53 mutants to a native conformation that induces apoptosis and activates several p53 target genes. However, whether PRIMA-1 can clear p53 aggregates is unclear. In this study, we investigated whether PRIMA-1 can restore aggregated mutant p53 to a native form. We observed that the p53 mutant protein is more sensitive to both PRIMA-1 and MQ aggregation inhibition than WT p53.
- The functionality of the tumor suppressor p53 is altered in more than 50% of human cancers, and many individuals with cancer exhibit amyloid-like buildups of aggregated p53. An understanding of what triggers the pathogenic amyloid conversion of p53 is required for the further development of cancer therapies. Here, perturbation of the p53 core domain (p53C) with subdenaturing concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride and high hydrostatic pressure revealed native-like molten globule (MG) states, a subset of which were highly prone to amyloidogenic aggregation.
- Inactivation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 by mutagenesis, chemical modification, protein-protein interaction, or aggregation has been associated with different human cancers. Although DNA is the typical substrate of p53, numerous studies have reported p53 interactions with RNA. Here, we have examined the effects of RNA of varied sequence, length, and origin on the mechanism of aggregation of the core domain of p53 (p53C) using light scattering, intrinsic fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy, thioflavin-T binding, seeding, and immunoblot assays.
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is one of the most common cardiomyopathies and a major cause of sudden death in young athletes. The Ca2+ sensor of the sarcomere, cardiac troponin C (cTnC), plays an important role in regulating muscle contraction. Although several cardiomyopathy-causing mutations have been identified in cTnC, the limited information about their structural defects has been mapped to the HCM phenotype. Here, we used high-resolution electron-spray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill relaxation dispersion (CPMG-RD), and affinity measurements of cTnC for the thin filament in reconstituted papillary muscles to provide evidence of an allosteric mechanism in mutant cTnC that may play a role to the HCM phenotype.
- The prion protein (PrPC) has been suggested to operate as a scaffold/receptor protein in neurons, participating in both physiological and pathological associated events. PrPC, laminin, and metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) form a protein complex on the plasma membrane that can trigger signaling pathways involved in neuronal differentiation. PrPC and mGluR5 are co-receptors also for β-amyloid oligomers (AβOs) and have been shown to modulate toxicity and neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.
- Protein misfolding results in devastating degenerative diseases and cancer. Among the culprits involved in these illnesses are prions and prion-like proteins, which can propagate by converting normal proteins to the wrong conformation. For spongiform encephalopathies, a real prion can be transmitted among individuals. In other disorders, the bona fide prion characteristics are still under investigation. Besides inducing misfolding of native proteins, prions bind nucleic acids and other polyanions.