Molecular Bases of Disease
- Stringent response pathways involving inorganic polyphosphate (PolyP) play an essential role in bacterial stress adaptation and virulence. The intracellular levels of PolyP are modulated by the activities of polyphosphate kinase-1 (PPK1), polyphosphate kinase-2 (PPK2), and exopolyphosphatases (PPXs). The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis encodes two functional PPXs, and simultaneous deletion of ppx1 and ppx2 results in a defect in biofilm formation. We demonstrate here that these PPXs cumulatively contribute to the ability of M.
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis is known to modulate the host immune responses to facilitate its persistence inside the host cells. One of the key mechanisms includes repression of class-II transactivator (CIITA) and MHC-II expression in infected macrophages. However, the precise mechanism of CIITA and MHC-II down-regulation is not well studied. M. tuberculosis 6-kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT-6) is a known potent virulence and antigenic determinant. The M. tuberculosis genome encodes 23 such ESAT-6 family proteins.
- Earlier findings have identified the requirement of insulin signaling on maturation and the translocation of serotonin (5-HT) transporter, SERT to the plasma membrane of the trophoblast in placenta. Because of the defect on insulin receptor (IR) in the trophoblast of the gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM)-associated placenta, SERT is found entrapped in the cytoplasm of the GDM-trophoblast. SERT is encoded by the same gene expressed in trophoblast and platelets. Additionally, alteration in plasma 5-HT levels and the 5-HT uptake rates are associated with the aggregation rates of platelets.
- Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by perturbations in metabolic/cellular signaling pathways with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS are regarded as a common denominator of various pathways, and they inflict injury on renal glomerular cells. Recent studies indicate that tubular pathobiology also plays a role in the progression of DN. However, the mechanism(s) for how high (25 mm) glucose (HG) ambience induces tubular damage remains enigmatic. myo-Inositol oxygenase (MIOX) is a tubular enzyme that catabolizes myo-inositol to d-glucuronate via the glucuronate-xylulose (G-X) pathway.
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on host lipids and lipid droplets for replication and morphogenesis. The accumulation of lipid droplets in infected hepatocytes manifests as hepatosteatosis, a common pathology observed in chronic hepatitis C patients. One way by which HCV promotes the accumulation of intracellular lipids is through enhancing de novo lipogenesis by activating the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs). In general, activation of SREBPs occurs during cholesterol depletion.
- Background: Arsenic induced cell transformation and carcinogenesis.Results: Arsenic-transformed cells have the property of apoptosis/autophagy resistance.Conclusion: The constitutive activation of Nrf2 in arsenic-transformed cells up-regulates antioxidants, decreases ROS generation, and causes apoptosis resistance and tumorigenesis.Significance: Antioncogenic role of inducible Nrf2 in normal cells and oncogenic role of constitutive activation of Nfr2 in cancer cells may increase our understanding of the mechanism of arsenic carcinogenesis and its prevention.