Molecular Bases of Disease
- Hepatic gluconeogenesis is essential to maintain blood glucose levels, and its abnormal activation leads to hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms in the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis remain to be fully defined. In this study, using murine hepatocytes and a liver-specific knockout mouse model, we explored the physiological role of nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) in regulating hepatic glucose metabolism and the underlying mechanism. We found that NF-Y targets the gluconeogenesis pathway in the liver.
- Adipose tissue inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. However, the molecules that mediate inflammation in adipose tissue have not been addressed. Although retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor α (RORα) is known to be involved in the regulation of inflammatory response in some tissues, its role is largely unknown in adipose tissue. Conversely, it is known that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolding protein response (UPR) signaling affect the inflammatory response in obese adipose tissue, but whether RORα regulates these processes remains unknown.
- Covalent intermolecular cross-linking provides collagen fibrils with stability. The cross-linking chemistry is tissue-specific and determined primarily by the state of lysine hydroxylation at specific sites. A recent study on cyclophilin B (CypB) null mice, a model of recessive osteogenesis imperfecta, demonstrated that lysine hydroxylation at the helical cross-linking site of bone type I collagen was diminished in these animals (Cabral, W. A., Perdivara, I., Weis, M., Terajima, M., Blissett, A.